Juvenile Justice Review 2 (midterm)

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Midterm

1. Which is not a principle of the life-course approach?
a. Some individuals are incapable of maturing in a reasonable and timely fashion.
b. As people mature, the factors that influence their behavior change.
c. The decision to violate the law comes after a careful weighing of the benefits and
costs of criminal behaviors.
d. Early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality.

c. The decision to violate the law comes after a careful weighing of the benefits and
costs of criminal behaviors.

2. A cornerstone of age-graded theory is the influence of _______________ on behavior.
a. personality traits
b. social capital
c. pseudomaturity
d. chemical imbalances

b. social capital

3. According to research, done on love and delinquency, who is most likely to desist from
delinquency?
a. Kids who engage in sex
b. Young men in a romantic relationship
c. Young women who become mothers
d. Young married couples

c. Young women who become mothers

4. According to age-graded theory, prevention of delinquency can be achieved through
four significant life-changing events. Which is not one of those events?
a. Joining the military
b. Changing one's environment
c. Marriage
d. Getting arrested

d. Getting arrested

5. The social development model integrates a number of theories. Which theory is not one of them?
a. Choice
b. Social structure
c. Social learning
d. Social control

a. Choice

6. Which of the following best describes the onset of crime according to interactional theory?
a. traced to a deterioration of the social bonds during adolescence
b. traced to the presence of a latent trait which activates during middle
school
c. traced to modeling antisocial behavior performed by significant others
d. traced to a failure of formal social control to deter potential offenders

a. traced to deterioration of the social bonds during adolescence

7. Which of the following theories attributes delinquent behavior patterns to childhoodsocialization and pro- or antisocial attachments over the life course?
a. differential association theory
b. social development model
c. self-control theory
d. age-graded theory

b. social development model

8. The __________________ is a developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological, routine
activities, and rational choice theories.
a. age-graded theory of crime
b. social developmental theory
c. general theory of crime
d. social learning theory

c. general theory of crime

9. Being _________________ is not a sign that a person has low self-control.
a. insensitive
b. Shortsighted
c. nonverbal
d. diligent

d. diligent

10. Which of the following is not among the criticisms of the general theory of crime?
a. Circular reasoning
b. Levels of self-control vary throughout the life-course
c. Underlying personality disorder
d. The role of social control agents in the process of delinquency

d. the role of social control agents in the process of delinquency

11. What role does environment have on impulsivity according to Gottfredson and
Hirschi?
a. The social world mediates the relationship.
b. Environment is a huge influence
c. The relationship is discounted.
d. None of the above

c. the relationship is discounted

12. The _______________, identified by Loeber and his associates, begins at an early age
with stubborn behavior; it leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.
a. authority conflict pathway
b. covert pathway
c. overt pathway
d. geometric pathway

a. authority conflict pathway

13. Moffitt's concept of _______________________ describes a situation where anti
social behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes for most
offenders.
a. juvenile dependence offenders
b. adolescent psychotics
c. life course persisters teen sprees
d. adolescent-limited offenders

d. adolescent-limited offenders

14. Moffitt's concept of ____________________ offenders describes a situation wherechronic juvenile offenders' criminal careers extend into adulthood.
a. adolescent-limited
b. life course persisters
c. overt pathway
d. authority conflict pathway

b. life course persisters

15. Kids who never break the law and whose conventional behavior makes them deviant in the teenage world where offending is the norm are known as:
a. adolescent-limited
b. life course persisters
c. abstainers
d. deterrents

c. abstainers

16. Which statement is false regarding the principles of trajectory theory?
a. There are different pathways to crime and different types of criminals.
b. Unconscious motivations developed early in childhood propel some
people into destructive or illegal behavior.
c. Some career criminals specialize in crime while others engage in a
variety of criminal acts.
d. Some offenders may begin their careers early in life, whereas others are
late bloomers.

b. unconscious motivations developed early in childhood propel some people into destructive or illegal behavior

17. What is not among the policy-based initiatives based on premises of developmental theory presented in the text?
a. Teaching parents disciplinary techniques that stress firmness and
consistency
b. Teaching parents about the risk and protective factors for substance
abuse
c. Strengthening children's social-emotional competence and positive
coping skills
d. Holding offenders accountable to victims and ensuring community
safety.

d. modeling offenders accountable to victims and ensuring community safety.

18.The Boys and Girls Clubs include a school component called SMART, which is designed to:
a. reduce specific risk factors in the children's school, family, community,
and personal environments
b. increase the children's mastery of particular academic skills
c. improve parental competence in specific academic subjects
d. reduce the family's involvement with academic matters such as helping
their kids with homework

a. reduce specific risk factors in the children's school, family, community, and personal environments.

Nicole is 14-years old with a juvenile record that dates back to when she was 10-years old. Her latest charge is possession and use of marijuana. It has been documented that she engaged in antisocial behaviors since pre-school, has performed poorly in school, and family dysfunction is present.

19. What do we know about early onset of deviance?
a. It strongly predicts more frequent, varied, and sustained criminality later in life.
b. It reduces the likelihood of criminal activity later in life.
c. It is associated with adolescents' feelings of social powerlessness.
d. It is linked to social conditions that control behavior choices.

a. it strongly predicts more frequent, varied, and sustained criminality later in life.

20. Delinquency is but one of many social problems faced by at-risk youth. Given the
scenario, what are the behaviors and risk factors known as collectively?
a. Continuity of crime
b. Cultural transmission
c. Problem behavior syndrome
d. Situational issues

c. problem behavior syndrome

Jerry participates in a variety of extreme sports, smokes weed, has gotten into bar
fights, and occasionally involves himself in a burglary with friends. He performed
poorly in school, and was raised in a low-income, single-parent household. His mom worked two jobs and was not around often to monitor Jerry's activities when he was younger, most of which were delinquent in nature.

21. What theory is best described in this scenario?
a. General strain
b. Self control
c. Choice
d. Social bond

b. Self control

22. According to ________________________, women who commit crimes have
biological and psychological traits similar to men.
a. gender schema
b. the chivalry hypothesis
c. the masculinity hypothesis
d. power control theory

c. the masculinity hypothesis

23. Girls are taught that their self-worth depends on their ability to:
a. sustain relationships
b. achieve higher academics
c. engage in less delinquency
d. find a life partner

a. sustain relationships

24. Which of the following statements is true concerning gender socializing and
aggression?
a. Males display relational aggression.
b. Men are more likely to feel distressed, experiencing sadness and anxiety.
c. Females display relational aggression.
d. Men are more likely to be the victims of physical and sexual abuse.

c. Females display relational aggression.

25. Which of the following statements is false concerning gender differences in
cognition?
a. Males acquire language faster.
b. Females are superior in verbal ability.
c. Males test higher in visual spatial performance.
d. Females are less likely to have reading problems.

a. Males acquire language faster.

26. Which of the following statements is false concerning gender differences in
personality?
a. Females are more willing to reveal their feelings and more likely to
express concern for others.
b. Females are more interested in competing for material success.
c. As adolescents develop, male self-esteem and self-concept rise, whereas
female self-confidence is lowered.
d. Males are more likely to introduce new topics and to interrupt
conversations.

b. Females are more interested in competing for material success.

27.There are some neurological differences between males and females; females are _____-brain oriented while males are _____-brain oriented.
a. left, right
b. right, left
c. left, center
d. front, rear

a. left, right

28. According to Bem's _____________________, our culture polarizes males and females by forcing them to obey mutually exclusive gender roles, or "scripts."
a. gender schema theory
b. chivalry hypothesis
c. psychodynamic theory
d. power control theory

a. gender schema theory

29. In her meta-analysis of studies examining gender differences in such traits as personality, cognition, communication skills, and leadership ability,psychologist Janet Shibley Hyde found that men and women are basically
more alike than different on these critical psychological variables. She
refers to her findings as:
a. Gender similarities hypothesis
b. Culture conflict approach
c. Trait theory
d. Near groups

a. Gender similarities hypothesis

30. Which of the following statements about gender differences and delinquency is false?
a. Among males, early offending is highly correlated with later
misbehavior
b. Males seem more aggressive and less likely to form attachments to
others
c. Females view aggression as an appropriate means to gain status
d. Females are more likely to be influenced by current levels of social
support than they are by their early history of antisocial behavior

c. Females view aggression as an appropriate means to gain status

31. In 1925, Cyril Burt:
a. found that females are more aggressive than males when they are menstruating.
b. linked female delinquency to menstruation.
c. found no association between female delinquency and menstruation.
d. found the majority of females who experience menstruation related
anxiety engage in crime.

b. linked female delinquency to menstruation.

32. To illustrate support for the chivalry hypothesis, its proponents point to data showing that even though women make up about 20 percent of arrestees, they
account for less than ______ percent of inmates.
a. 5
b. 13
c. 35
d. 50

a. 5

33. Freud contends that females suffer from __________________, which produces an
inferiority complex in girls, forcing them to compensate for their "defect."
a. math phobia
b. gender identity disorder
c. psychosis nirvana
d. penis envy

d. penis envy

34. According to some _____________ theorists, gender differences in the delinquency rate can be explained by inborn differences in aggression.
a. personality
b. Psychodynamic
c. biosocial
d. socialization

c. biosocial

35. With regard to socialization, which of the following statements is false?
a. Males and females are similarly affected by child abuse and its link to
delinquency.
b. There is a significant co-occurrence between physical teen dating
violence with other forms of victimization.
c. For girls with at least one prior runaway offense, the risk of chronic
offending is five times higher than those without a prior runaway.
d. Male juvenile homicide offenders reported higher rates of substance use
than their female counterparts.

a. Males and females are similarly affected by child abuse and its link to
delinquency.

36. According to liberal feminists, increasing female offending patterns are caused by:
a. hormone levels
b. experiences of abuse
c. an environment in which the roles of girls and boys converge
d. exploitation of females by fathers and husbands

c. an environment in which the roles of girls and boys converge

37. __________ an influential feminist scholar, formulated a theoretical model to show how misguided concepts of masculinity flow from the inequities built into"patriarchal capitalism."
a. Cesare Lombroso
b. Meda Chesney-Lind
c. Jody Miller
d. James Messerschmidt

b. Meda Chesney-Lind

38. Which of the following social thinkers is not closely associated with biological
explanations of delinquency?
a. Cyril Burt
b. Cesare Lombroso
c. Augusta Bronner
d. Jody Miller

d. Jody Miller

39. According to the _______________ feminist view, male exploitation acts as a trigger for female delinquent behavior.
a. liberal
b. critical
c. multiracial
d. radical

b. critical

40. In _________________ families, fathers are the breadwinners and mothers stay home
or have menial jobs.
a. paternalistic
b. matriarchal
c. materialistic
d. egalitarian

a. paternalistic

41.Which of the following families is most likely to produce daughters whose law
violating behaviors mirror those of their brothers?
a. paternalistic families
b. maternalistic families
c. egalitarian families
d. fundamentalist families

c. egalitarian families

42. Which statement about sex trafficking is false?
a. Trafficking activities include recruiting, transporting, and transferring of
persons through force, fraud, or coercion.
b. An estimated 45,000 to 50,000 individuals are trafficked into the United
States annually.
c. Young girls and women are common targets of commercial sexual
exploitation.
d. Enforcement of trafficking laws has been effective through collaboration
of agencies and cooperation of countries.

d. Enforcement of trafficking laws has been effective through collaboration
of agencies and cooperation of countries.

43. According to the text, what is not a step the United States has taken to combat human trafficking?
a. It defined several new crimes, including human trafficking, sex
trafficking, forced labor, and document servitude.b. It outlawed psychological manipulation of victims.
c. It limited law enforcement's ability to arrest traffickers.
d. It expanded the Operation Innocence Lost program.

c. It limited law enforcement's ability to arrest traffickers.

Lisa is 16 years old and has been arrested for prostitution. Her case file reveals a
turbulent family life, victimization, and that currently; she is living independent of her
family. Her criminal record contains various arrests for drug possession. To date, while arrested, Lisa has not been formally charged, but current policy may change that outcome.

44. Among males, early offending is highly correlated with later misbehavior, however
what is known about females' criminal career path?
a. It is moderated by male partners
b. It is reliant on an early history of antisocial behavior
c. It is influenced by current levels of social support
d. It is related to her sexual prowess

c. It is influenced by current levels of social support

45. Given Lisa's history, what conclusion can one ascertain?
a. She may be a chronic runaway.
b. Her deviant career path is set.
c. She is not socialized.
d. She is a chronic and serious offender.

a. She may be a chronic runaway.

46. What is known about the juvenile justice system's treatment of girls?
a. Girls are not formally processed.
b. Girls are provided more services and support.
c. Girls receive more lenient sanctions.
d. Girls are more likely to be detained for status offenses.

d. Girls are more likely to be detained for status offenses.

Jane is 15 years old and both her parents work full-time. She is the middle child and
has brothers as siblings. Jane's brothers have been in trouble due to being caught
smoking pot and vandalizing property as part of a prank. To date, Jane's parents are unaware of any exploits on her part.

47. What is known about cognitive differences between males and females?
a. Girls learn to speak earlier and faster.
b. Males maintain superiority on mechanical tasks.
c. Females display more self-control than males.
d. All are cognitive differences.

a. Girls learn to speak earlier and faster.

48. If caught engaging in some form of delinquent behavior, whose behavior will be less tolerated?
a. Jane's
b. Her younger brother
c. Her older brother
d. All siblings are treated similarly

a. Jane's

49. According to power-control theory, given Jane's family structure, what might her delinquent behavior look like?
a. Minor in comparison to her brothers
b. Similar to that of her bothers
c. Worse than her brothers
d. Jane's presence will discourage delinquency by her brothers

b. Similar to that of her bothers

Cheryl has a history of substance use, self-harm, and has been involved in physical assaults. She has been sexually active since 15 years old when she was involved with a 25-year old male. Cheryl has talked her way out of many situations with both potential offenders and criminal justice agencies.

50. Cheryl's verbal proficiency demonstrates a ____________ differences between the
sexes.
a. socialization
b. genetic
c. cognitive
d. personality

c. cognitive

51. What is known about aggressive behaviors and girls?
a. Girls are more likely to hide aggressive behaviors from adults.
b. Girls are less likely to hide aggressive behaviors from adults.
c. Girls display aggressive behaviors similarly to boys.
d. None of the above.

a. Girls are more likely to hide aggressive behaviors from adults.

52. Which of the following children is least likely to live in a two-parent household?
a. an African American child
b. an Asian American child
c. a Hispanic child
d. a White non-Hispanic child

a. an African American child

53. Today about ___________ of African American children live in a two-parent
household.
a. one-quarter
b. half
c. one-third
d. one-fifth

c. one-third

54. Which of the following statements about the American family is false?
a. over two-thirds of underage children live in two-parent families
b. about 65 percent of African America children will experience parental
separation or divorce
c. about one-quarter of all mothers of school-age children are employed
d. none of the above statements are false

c. about one-quarter of all mothers of school-age children are employed

55. What statement about childcare is false according to the text?
a. A relative primarily cares for about 48 % of children ages 0-4 with employed mothers.
b. Several states neither license nor monitor private providers of daycare.
c. Like many other Western countries, the United States provides universal
day care to working mothers.
d. Children from working poor families are most likely to suffer from
inadequate childcare.

c. Like many other Western countries, the United States provides universal
day care to working mothers.

56. Which one of the following was not a finding of Conger's research on economic
stress and the family?
a. As parents become more emotionally distressed, they tend to interact
with one another and their children in a more irritable and less
supportive fashion.
b. Marital stability and consistent parenting increase children's risk of
suffering developmental problems.
c. Economic stress processes decrease children's ability to function in a
competent manner in school and with peers.
d. Parents, who remain supportive and demonstrate effective problemsolving skills in spite of hardship, shield their children and themselves
from adverse consequences of economic stress.

b. Marital stability and consistent parenting increase children's risk of
suffering developmental problems.

57. Nye established a link between parental conflict and delinquency with the finding that:
a. children of transient workers have higher delinquency rates than other
groups
b. a child's perception of marital happiness was a significant predictor of
delinquency
c. children who witness marital violence have higher delinquency rates
than other groups
d. children who are victimized in the home have higher delinquency rates
than other groups

b. a child's perception of marital happiness was a significant predictor of
delinquency

58. Delinquency will be reduced if parents provide the type of structure that integrates
children into families, while giving them the ability to assert their
individuality and regulate their own behavior, a phenomenon referred to as
__________.
a. parental efficacy
b. balancing of interest
c. familicide
d. tracking

a. parental efficacy

59. Large families may suffer from _______________________ when resources are
spread too thin.
a. paternalism
b. economic distress
c. resource dilution
d. resource competition

c. resource dilution

60. Which of the following is not one of the factors presented in the text as playing a role in intergenerational deviance?
a. genetic factors
b. stigma
c. parenting
d. ethnicity

d. ethnicity

61. What is the relationship between siblings and delinquency?
a. There is no relationship between siblings and delinquency.
b. If one sibling is a delinquent, there is little probability another sibling
will engage in delinquent behaviors.
c. If one sibling is a delinquent, there is a significant likelihood that his
brother or sister will engage in delinquent behaviors.
d. The relationship is uncertain and lacks research findings.

c. If one sibling is a delinquent, there is a significant likelihood that his
brother or sister will engage in delinquent behaviors.

62. Historically, concern for the negative effects of child maltreatment came about with
the case of:
a. Charles Lindbergh, Jr.
b. Mary Ellen Wilson
c. Adam Walsh
d. Megan Kanka

b. Mary Ellen Wilson

63. ___________________ refers to deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents, such as lack of food, shelter, and adequate health care.
a. Physical abuse
b. Physical neglect
c. Emotional abuse
d. Educational neglect

b. Physical neglect

64. Psychologists suggest that maltreatment encourages children to use
________________ as a means of solving problems and prevents them from
feeling empathy for others.
a. rationality
b. aggression
c. introspection
d. resistance

b. aggression

65. Which statement about substance abuse and child abuse is false?
a. Children of alcoholics suffer more injuries and poisonings than do
children in the general population.
b. Alcohol and other substances may act as disinhibitors, lessening impulse
control and allowing parents to behave abusively.
c. Children in this environment often demonstrate behavioral problems and
are diagnosed as having conduct disorders.
d. Children raised in such households are less likely to have problems with
alcohol and other drugs as they refuse to model their parents' behavior

d. Children raised in such households are less likely to have problems with
alcohol and other drugs as they refuse to model their parents' behavior

66. A ____________________ is a lawyer appointed by the court to look after the
interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own rights.
a. guardian ad litem
b. attorney del casa
c. counsel del rio
d. counselor de prima

a. guardian ad litem

67. During a _____________________, the court reviews the facts of the case,
determines whether removal of the child from the home is justified, and
notifies the parents of charges against them.
a. advisement hearing
b. adjudication hearing
c. family court trial
d. interlocutory hearing

a. advisement hearing

68. At the _____________________, the attorney for the social service agency presents an overview of the case and the evidence; matters such as admissibility of
photos and written reports are settled. The attorneys can negotiate a settlement of the case, in which the parents accept a treatment plan.
a. adjudication hearing
b. disposition hearing
c. pretrial conference
d. review hearing

c. pretrial conference

69. It is estimated that about _____ out of every 100 child abuse or neglect cases reaches
the trial stage.
a. 2
b. 10
c. 25
d. 46

b. 10

70. Which of the following is false with concern to child witnesses in the courtroom?
a. Most states have enacted legislation allowing videotaped statements to
be admissible in court.
b. Most of the states now allow a child's testimony to be given on closedcircuit television (CCTV).
c. Some states require that the defendant be present to directly question the
child.
d. Children in sexual abuse cases have been allowed to use anatomically
correct dolls to demonstrate happenings that they cannot describe
verbally.

c. Some states require that the defendant be present to directly question the
child.

71. In ____________________, the Court ruled that one-way CCTV could serve as the
equivalent of in court testimony and would not interfere with the
defendant's right to confront witnesses.
a. Jones v. Kentucky
b. White v. Illinois
c. Maryland v. Craig
d. Kramer v. Kramer

c. Maryland v. Craig

James' parents were married for 10 years. Currently, he lives with his divorced mom
who works full-time.

72. What is the association between James' mom's employment and his delinquency?
a. It is a direct cause
b. It is an indirect cause
c. The relationship is spurious
d. It is unknown.

d. It is unknown.

Tom is the oldest of five children. His parents both work at low-paying, unskilled
jobs. They are not home regularly and when they are verbally fight; at times, the
fights escalate to physical aggression. Tom and his brothers and sisters have
witnessed the violence on occasion and have also been direct victims of harsh
discipline and physical abuse.

73. Who in Tom's family has a higher likelihood of being a victim of abuse?
a. Tom
b. The middle child
c. The youngest sibling
d. All the siblings have a similar likelihood.

c. The youngest sibling

74. If the state intervenes and prosecutes Tom's parents, what is the first step of the
process?
a. Advisement hearing
b. Review hearing
c. Pretrial conference
d. Disposition hearing

a. Advisement hearing

Casey is a 10-year old victim of sexual abuse by a family member. His perpetrator's case will go to trial and Casey is on the witness list.
75. Testimony of child witnesses do not allow for which of the following?
a. Testimony via CCTV
b. Use of anatomical dolls
c. Videotaped testimony
d. Use of illustrations

d. Use of illustrations

76. What is known about the abuse-delinquency link?
a. Regardless of the type, abuse impacts girls only.
b. Kids maltreated solely during early childhood may be less likely to
engage in chronic delinquency.
c. There are no racial differences in the long-term effect of abuse on
delinquency.
d. The link is questionable.

b. Kids maltreated solely during early childhood may be less likely to
engage in chronic delinquency.

77. According to the text, __________________ are aggressive kids who are eitherhighly liked or intensely disliked by their peers.
a. controversial status youth
b. millennium ragers
c. street punks
d. honor roll students

a. controversial status youth

78. According to __________________ theory, delinquents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society.
a. sociocultural
b. control
c. social disorganization
d. strain

b. control

79. In some instances, a peer group provides the social and emotional basis for antisocial activity. When this happens:
a. an out-group is transformed into a social category
b. a crowd is transformed into a gang
c. a clique is transformed into a gang
d. an in-group is transformed into an out-group

c. a clique is transformed into a gang

80. Which of the following were not among the early American gangs?
a. Plug Uglies
b. Roach Guards
c. Dead Rabbits
d. Bugles

d. Bugles

81. ______________________ was terrorized by organized gangs that called themselves
"Hectors," "Bugles," "Dead Boys," and other colorful names.
a. London
b. New York
c. Boston
d. Seattle

a. London

82.Which of the following statements about gangs in the 1950s and 1960s is false?
a. The threat of gangs and gang violence swept the public consciousness.
b. By the mid-1960s, the gang menace seemed to have peaked.
c. In the 1960s, some gangs shifted their emphasis from criminal behavior
to get involved in social or political activities.
d. The decrease in gang menace was partially due to many gang members
being drafted into the army.

b. By the mid-1960s, the gang menace seemed to have peaked.

83. Which of the following best describes the most common reason for gang member migration in the United States?
a. political, to spread the influence of gangs
b. social, the gang member's family moves
c. economic, to spread the drug distribution network
d. social, to spread the social networks of the gang

b. social, the gang member's family moves

84. Subgroups of same-aged youths in Latino gangs that remain together and haveseparate names and a unique identity in the gang are known as ______.
a. barrios
b. Cohorts
c. klikas
d. near groups

c. klikas

85. With regard to gang leadership, which statement is false?
a. Those who assume leadership roles earned their position by
demonstrating fighting prowess, verbal quickness, or athletic distinction.
b. In some gangs, each age level has its own leaders.
c. Older members are considered leaders by younger members.
d. Less organized gangs are marked by diffuse and shifting leadership.

c. Older members are considered leaders by younger members.

86. When gang members toss or flash signs to proclaim their gang membership, this is
called:
a. fronting
b. passing
c. badging
d. representing

d. representing

87. A ________________ gang concentrates on drug use and sales but forgoes most
delinquent behavior.
a. social
b. party
c. serious delinquent
d. organized

b. party

88. Fagan described this type of gang as being involved in few delinquent activities and little drug use other than alcohol and marijuana.
a. social
b. party
c. serious
d. organized

a. social

89. __________ are clusters of youth who outwardly seem unified, but actually have
limited cohesion, impermanence, minimal consensus of norms, shifting
membership, disturbed leadership, and limited definitions of membership
expectations.
a. Cliques
b. Klikas
c. Near groups
d. Gangs

c. Near groups

90. According to the text, females are involved in gangs in three ways. Which of the
following is not one of these three ways?
a. as auxiliaries of male gangs
b. as part of sexually mixed gangs
c.as back-up gangs
d. as autonomous gangs

c. as back-up gangs

91. According to the _____________ view, ganging can provide girls with a sense of
sisterhood, independence, and solidarity, as well as a chance to earn profit
through illegal activities.
a. liberation
b. social injury
c. rational choice
d. anthropological

a. liberation

92. According to the ____________________ view, female members are still sexually
exploited by male gang boys and are sometimes forced to exploit other
females.
a. liberation
b. social injury
c. rational choice
d. anthropological

b. social injury

93. With regard to gender and gangs, what statement is false?
a. Studies show that females leave gangs at an older age than males.
b. Most girls join gangs in an effort to cope with their turbulent personal
lives.
c. Many of the girl gang members had early exposure to neighborhood
violence.
d. Female gang membership protected female gang members from sexual
assault by nongang neighborhood men.

a. Studies show that females leave gangs at an older age than males.

94. The earliest gangs, the Wah Ching, were formed in the nineteenth century by Chinese youths affiliated with adult crime groups called:
a. triads
b. tongs
c. hui kuan
d. tsu

b. tongs

95. According to the ___________________ view, gangs appeal to adolescents' longing
for the tribal process that sustained their ancestors.
a. liberation
b. social injury
c. rational choice
d. anthropological

d. anthropological

96. Which of the following statements about the psychological view of gang formation is
true?
a. kids join gangs for protection, fun, and survival
b. gangs appeal to kids' tribal instincts
c. gangs form because of destructive sociocultural forces in disorganized
inner-city areas
d. kids with personality problems form gangs and become leaders

d. kids with personality problems form gangs and become leaders

Michael is 13 years old and has both a good relationship with his parents and with
close group of friends who know him well. Some of these friends have engaged in
various delinquent activities. One friend, John, is rather aggressive and is liked by
some in the group and not others. Michael also has a wider circle of friends from his
participation in Boy Scouts and hockey.

97. Michael binge drinks with his closest friends. This is this illustrative of:
a. co-offending
b. representing
c. prestige crimes
d. masculinity hypothesis

a. co-offending

98. Given John's propensity toward being aggressive, what might he be considered?
a. Criminal atavist
b. Interstitial male
c. Controversial status youth
d. Precocious male

c. Controversial status youth

Julie is a 16-year old member of an independent female gang. Her family background was turbulent and she was victimized at home and in school. Since joining the gang, Julie has been able to buy clothes, an iPod, and a new car by selling drugs and turning tricks. Recently, she found out she is pregnant and decided to keep the baby.

99. What might be expected when Julie gives birth?
a. She will remain with the gang for the long-term.
b. The gang will take care of her baby.
c. She will drift away from the gang.
d. The gang will oust Julie.

c. She will drift away from the gang.

Jimmy, known as Lil' Jam to his crew, is 17 years old and has been a member of the Crips since he was 10 years old. He comes from a lower-class neighborhood and a dysfunctional family. He has participated in a number of gang-related crimes, including physically assaulting a rival gang member to gain entry into the gang and notoriety in the neighborhood.

100. Jimmy's physical assault as part of his gang initiation is considered:
a. a prestige crime
b. co-offending
c. a controversial status
d. bullying

a. a prestige crime

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