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Psychology is formally defined as:

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

French philosopher René Descartes:

promoted a doctrine called interactive dualism

Wilhelm Wundt:

was a German physiologist

Wilhelm Wundt defined psychology as:

the study of consciousness

Structuralism:

was based on the idea that even our most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into basic mental "structures" of sensations and feelings

The founder of psychoanalysis was:

Austrian physician Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalysis emphasized:

unconscious causes of behavior

Behaviorism was characterized by:

the rejection of consciousness as a topic psychology and a focus upon observable behavior

humanistic psychology emphasized:

free will, self-determination, psychological growth, and human potential

psychologists assume that:

behavior and mental processes have a cause or causes

a hypothesis is:

a tentative statement that describes the relationship between two or more variables

a theory:

integrates and summarizes diverse findings on the same topic

An operational definition is:

a precises description of how each variable in a particular study will be manipulated or measured

Descriptive research:

typically answer the "who, what, where, when, how often" questions about behavior

A pseudoscience is a:

fake or false science that is based on little or no scientific evidence

Case studies:

are commonly used by clinical psychologists and other mental health professionals to develop a complete profile of a psychotherapy client

A representative sample is a:

group of subjects that closely parallels the larger group to be studied on all relevant characteristics, such as age, sex, and race

A correlational study:

examines how strongly two variables are related to one another

A placebo is:

a fake substance, treatment or procedure with no known direct effects

In a double-blind study:

both the subjects and the researcher who interacts with them are unaware of which subjects have been exposed to the independent variable

Which famous Greek philosopher wrote extensively about such psychological topics as sleep and dreaming, the senses, memory, and learning?

Aristotle

How did Physiology contribute to the emergence of psychology as a separate scientific discipline?

physiologists demonstrated that scientific methods could be applied to understanding human behavior and mental processes

which of the following events do most historians consider to mark the formal beginning of psychology as a scientific discipline?

the establishment of the first psychology research laboratory by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879

One important limitation of introspection as a research method was that introspection:

could not be used to study behavior in children or animals

"I believe that consciousness should be studied to help us understand the functions of behavior." such a statement would most likely be made by:

William James

Who conditioned dogs to reflexively salivate to the sound of a bell rather than food?

Russian physiologist Ivan pavlov

Which of the following people emphasized conscious experiences and each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction

Carl Rogers

"Changes in the Brain with Age" would most likely be a journal article written by a psychologist who subscribes to the _____ perspective of psychology.

Biological

Freud's landmark theory of personality became the basis of which perspective in contemporary psychology?

Psychodynamic

Which of the following contributed to the "cognitive revolution" and a return to the study of mental processes?

The invention of the fist computers in the 1950's

Joanna has suffered a series of personal setbacks, including the death of a family member, academic problems in college, and a divorce. she feels so sad, upset, and lonely that she is contemplating suicide. Joanna could probably best be helped by a(n)_____ psychologist

Clinical

Dr. Kerrik has developed a training program for young children that will help the children learn to read at a quicker pace and with greater comprehension. what kind of psychologist is Dr. Kerrik?

Educational

Pressor Anderson is interested in how family relationships change over time. during the last two decades, he has kept track of and repeatedly surveyed the same group of 3,000 participants about changes in their relationships with their parents and siblings. Professor Anderson is most likely a _____ psychologist.

Developmental

Which area of psychology is most interested in examining individual differences and the characteristics that make each person unique?

Personality psychology

Empirical evidence refers to evidence that is the result of:

Observation, measurement, and experimentation

In order to test the hypothesis that premarital education enhances marital quality, Dr. Stanley should first.

Operationally define the terms premarital education and marital quality

Howard recognizes that there is always a subjective side to any science. therefore, he believes that it is important to actively minimize preconceptions and biases while evaluating evidence. also, he always considers alternative explanations for research findings. Howard's attitude reflects:

Critical thinking

Dr. Harmon wants to study the conditions under which some children are rejected by their peers. Daily, from the beginning of a school year, she carefully observes and records the behavior of kindergartners, first-graders, and second graders in the classroom and on the playground. Dr. Harmon is using:

Naturalistic Observation

Based on a friend's suggestion, Nicole moved her bed so that its head pointed to magnetic north. Nicole's friend told her this would help align the electrical impulses in her body and improve blood circulation to her brain. After sleeping this way for a week, Nicole found it easier to concentrate while studying. Her test scores also seemed to improve. Even after learning that scientific evidence does not support this notion, Nicole believed that sleeping with her pointed to the magnetic north had improved her performance. Nicole's perception is an example of:

Pseudoscientific belief

In Robert Levine's research on the "pace of life" in 31 different countries, he measured the amount of time it took a pedestrian to walk 60 feet on a down town city street. this represented the:

Operational definition

Professor Nelson wishes to investigate the relationship between stress and visits to the college mental health clinic. which of the following research methods would be most appropriate?

a correlational study

Your instructor notices that in many of his classes, the longer he lectures, the more student yawns he sees. this pre resents;

A positive correlation

Pressor Williams is investigating loneliness. Participants in the study complete the UCLA Loneliness scale to measure their level of loneliness. they also answer questions on a survey about many aspects of their personal life. in analyzing the results of her study, professor Williams finds that as the number of friends increases, the level of loneliness tends to decrease. this represents a _____ correlation.

Negative

Dr. Marinez is studying the effects of diet on mental alertness Each morning for two weeks, subjects in Dr. Martinez's study eat a breakfast that is either high in carbohydrates or high in protein. Dr. Martinez then measures the subject's abilities at solving geometry problems. What is the dependent variable in this study?

The ability to solve geometry problems

Researcher at the Allied Mental Health Center are conducting a study to determine how quickly symptoms of depression are reduced by different forms of psychotherapy. What is the independent variable in this study?

the type of psychotherapy used to treat depression

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