18th-century rise of modern science.
Greek philosopher and scientist who is one of the most influential thinkers in the history of Western thought; many of his theories were proved or disproved by the Scientific Revolution.
Polish astronomer who set forth the heliocentric theory.
Danish astronomer who built observatory equipped with precision instruments with the help of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II.
German astronomer who discovered the three laws that govern orbital motion.
Italian astronomer and physicist who observed sunspots, Jupiter's moons, craters on the moon, phases of Venus; he formulated the law of uniform acceleration and discovered the constancy of a pendulum's swing.
English mathematician and physicist who wrote "Principia Mathematica": contained law of universal gravitation; he also co-developed calculus.
New scientific instruments
The telescope, barometer, thermometer, pendulum clock, microscope, and air pump were examples of these.
English statesman, philosopher, and empiricist who developed the inductive (scientific) method.
French philosopher and mathematician; doubt everything that is systematically doubtable; Cartesian dualism: mind vs. matter, subjective vs. objective; he developed analytic geometry.
A European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.
French author who wrote "Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds"; characteristic ideas of the Enlightenment are found in his works.
French-Protestant philosopher and skeptic who wrote "Dictionnaire historique et critique"; he heavily promoted religious toleration.
English philosopher and founder of empiricism and political liberalism; he wrote "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" and "Second Treatise on Civil Government"; he advocated the theory of "tabula rasa" (blank slate) and maintained that civil governments must protect their citizens' right to life, liberty, and property.