Unit 2 History

Created by emilyy94 

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Chapters 3/4 US History junior

acts of slavery rebellion

mostly try to slow down work; commit theft, destroy tools/crops, run away

agriculture in middle colonies

encouraged port cities; thrived by forging comm. links bet. farmers/dealers; "new money"; city people at risk of disease; needed sailors

agriculture in N England

fishing/shipping; poor soil/cold; raised livestock; ate what produced; traded w/ Wine Island/caribbean; chief traders after Nav. Acts; ports: NYC, Phillie

Bacon's Rebellion

conflict bet. landless immigrants/dispossessed natives; low tobacco/high land prices; leader looks to VA gov for help; try to stop him, call him traitor; he burns Jamestown; no lasting effect

Benjamin Franklin

American public official, writer, scientist, printer, inventor; part in Am. Rev.; helped secure French support; neg. Treaty of Paris; helped draft Constit.; improved human conditions

black codes

defined slavery; kids were slaves too; ok for white to kill black, not inverse; no legal marriage; no property ownership; no meetings in groups (afraid of rebellion)

Causes of F/I War

British/Iroquois v. French/natives; Fort Necessity expansion of war to Europe ; B > F; ambushed by F; 2/3 B troops die at FN (fails); England slow to react to colonists defending (have started war in Europe)

Consequences of F/I War

France loses NA empire; larger B land/debt; English contempt for colonies greater( refuse pay for war/sell food to F); colonies together for 1st time; B give NA smallpox/take land; Proc.of 1763 (keep colonists from Ohio Valley)

early abolitionists

white colonists question morality of slavery; feared slave rebellions; "all equal in God's eyes"; Quakers

Education

in Enlightenment was placed upon it; ranged by region, class, gender; NE made greatest effort: all kids should be able to read Bible, passed laws to est. school, est. Harvard/ Yale; very few in chesapeake area; females grew

English justification for slavery

black=bad, white=holy; already existed in W Indies; need cheap labor; didnt work w/ NA; not many whites willing

Enlightenment

celebration of human reason/scientific inquiry; people look for natural (not supernat.) causes for things; influ. 18th cent. politics

French/Indian War

fight over Ohio River Valley; most imp. to shaping relat. bet. B/colonies; starts in int. alliances; William Pitt takes command for B; impresses colonists; makes them mad; then relaxes policies; F are outnumbered/bad crops; B wins; F loses all N America colonies; Treaty of Paris ends the war

George Whitefield

Anglican minister found adherents across denominational lines; came to tour Mid- Colonies from England; "The Grand Itinerant"; invited to Northampton, traveled thru NE

Georgia

founded by James Oglethorpe; place for honest debtors; meant to be military buffer bet. S Carolina/Sp. FA; Savannah- 1st town; German/Scot- Irish immigrants; success when slavery allowed-45%

Great Awakening

immense religious revival swept across Protestant world for renewal of Calvinist beliefs; from Europe; est. Puritan churches for tax support; Anglican problems: only half churches had reg. preachers; NJ first to be effected

Impact of FIW on British

gain a lot of land/debt (from war); had to pay to keep soldiers in colonies; tax colonies to pay costs of empire; not prepared for colonise wanting freedom

Impact of FIW on Colonists

resistant to British control; had freedom, dont react well when B tell them what to do; get B to back off

Impact of FIW on French

lose all land in NA/many colonies elsewhere

Impact of FIW on Natives

white encroach on land whether on winning/losing side

Impressments

involuntary draft of B on colonists in F/I War

James Oglethorpe

sought charter to colonize Georgia (last of British mainland colonies); w/intention of est. a society of small farmers; w/out slavery/hard liquor; land<500 acres; wanted to help poor

John Locke

English philosopher/author challenged notion that humans have no role in fate (only God) w/out denying existence of God; believed in freedom/possibility of improving conditions of lives

King Philip's War

Metacoms War; conflict between NE and NA; begins when NA liaison is killed by Wampanoag;colonists win; natives put in praying towns/slavery

Middle Passage

supply high/prices low; exposed to sun, not much food/water; not much room; examined like cattle, branded; 3 weeks/months; sold by auction: young men= highest price

Middle/NE slavery

fewer slaves; most lived in port towns, not plantations

Pennsylvania

founded as William Penn's "holy experiment"; diverse society: Quakers, all other religions; tolerant/center of commerce&culture; capital thriving port; mod. fees, punishm.,vote if free

Pope's Rebellion

"The Pueblo Revolt"; Pueblo's pray to ancient gods for rain; Spanish mad for no Catholicism, NA resent; Pope attacks/kills 400 colonists; effective, drove Spanish out of Santa Fe; Don Diego de Vargas re-est. Spanish; revenge on NA; struggle til no forcing NA by Spanish

Proclamation of 1763

line across Appalac. mtns. (ME-GA) to keep B from Ohio Valley; NA not happy, but agree; B gov. wants to control W expansion, setlle to avoid spending; failed bc settlers ignore it; not enough troops; keep neg. w/ NA, move line further W

Quakers

Pacifists want peace; believed men/women equal; sat in room, wait for God to come in light to them; more radical than Puritans (commit violence against them)

Salem Witch Trials

1692; 3 young girls had strange behavior, "bewitched"; (fungal infection from wheat)

Sir Isaac Newton

discovered universal laws that govern motion of space things; demonstrated universe operated by fixed principles

Slave culture

life controlled by owner; hard to attain freedom; created comm. family to take care of sold kids; dev. language combo of Afr./English

Southern slavery

large plantations; either house servants(envied, better clothes, raped, not in sun, no intera. w/ others) or field hands (in sun all day, women took home of family after working)

Treaty of Paris

have B colonies secure from F/S; gov. recieved 2 unprofitable colonies (Canada, FA); many colonists interpreted war as fight against Catholicism- view victory as sign God favored Britain

Tumult Breeds Witch Hysteria

crises in MA; result of religious/economic changes; witchcraft accus. way to settle feuds; primary acc.: indep., old women

William Penn

founded Pennsylvania; owed debt to father; intended to provide haven for Quakers, treat NA fairly, create progressive gov, make money (didnt); died of stroke in debtors prison

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