Chemistry Section 2

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Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass; solids, liquids, and gases; distinguished by physical properties

Physical properties

Properties of matter that can be observed and measured without changing the chemical structure of the substance; density, freezing point, melting point, etc.

Density

A physical property of the mass of material per specified (unit) volume; d = m/V

Mass units

Grams (g), kilograms (kg), milograms (mg), etc.

Volume units

Liters (L), mililiters (mL), cm cubed (cm³)

Density units

Grams per mililiters (g/mL), grams per centimeter cubed (g/cm³), etc.

Freezing point

The point at which water freezes- 0° C, or 32° F- in normal atmospheric conditions

Aqueous solution ("Universal solvent")

A solution that dissolves many different substances easily

Mixture

A combination of 2 or more substances that retain all their physical properties and can be seperated by physical means

Heterogenous mixture

A mixture with a composition of substances that are not evenly distributed throughout (one at top, one at bottom, etc.)

Homogenous mixture

A mixture that has all substances evenly distributed throughout it

Suspension

A heterogenous mixture with large particles at the bottom that can be obtained without filtration

Colloid

A heterogenous mixture containing small, floating particles that never settle at the bottom

Tyndall effect

An effect that occurs when you shine light through a water source, and if it contains small particles, the light scatters, and if the water is pure, the light shines through evenly

Solution

All homogenous mixtures, consisting of a solute and a solvent

Solvent

The dissolving substance in a soution

Solute

The substance being dissolved in a solution by a solvent

Particulate level

The level of substances that observes their molecules and atoms

Atom

The smallest piece of matter still retaining its physical properties ("building blocks of matter")

Molecule

2 or more atoms bonded by chemical bonds

Element

Matter made up totally by only one type of atom

Compound

Matter made up of two or more types of elements linked chemically

Chemical symbol

1, 2, or 3 letters, always starting with capital letters and then lowercase for the rest, to represent elements; used by scientists internationally (i.e. H, C, Ne...)

Chemical formula

Made of compounds; has elements and their ratios as subscripts (i.e. H₂O, CO₂)

Chemical equation

Shows a chemical reaction; has different names from start to finish, but same number of atoms of each element (i.e. 2H₂+ O₂-> 2H₂O)

Chemical reaction

Breaking down bonds of chemicals and forming new ones, rearranging atoms ito new substances

Pure substance

A substance that, when broken down, contains uniform composition of the atoms; each has its own distinct properties

Subscript

The number written below the line of the chemical symbol that represents the ratio of atoms to a unit of the substance

Reactant

The original substance(s) starting out in a chemical reaction/ equation

Product

The resulting substance(s) in a chemical reaction/ equation from the reactants, written on the right side of an arrow

Diatomic molecule

An element that exists naturally as 2 atoms of the same type bonded together

Proton

A positively- charged subatomic particle in the nucleus cluster(center of atom)- p⁺¹; in a neutral atom atom, the number of protons is the same as the number of nuetrons

Neutron

A non- charged subatomic particle that's also in the nucleus cluster- n; in a neutral atom, the number of neutrons is the same as the number of protons

Electron

A negatively- charged subatomic particle orbiting the nucleus in the electron cloud

Ion

An atom that has a charge, or unequal number of protons and electrons; mostly, an ion will occur from a dropped or added electron (since it is easier for them to change as they are in the electron cloud)

Cation

An ion that is positively- charged, because electrons are dropped (+e⁻¹)

Anion

An ion that is negatively- charged, because electrons are gained (-e⁻¹, or e⁺¹)

Ionic compound

A substance formed by anions and cations held by ionic bonds; the overall charge should balance out to neutral

Polyatomic ion

An ion group consisted of more than one ion with a charge

Rules for ionic compounds

Write the cation (positive) first, then anion (negative) (Li⁺, Cl⁻); change the subscript(s) until the charge reaches zero (Mg²⁺, Br⁻, 2-1=0, 2-2= 0); get the GCF to 1; if polyatomic ion, use parenthesis- OH⁻, Ca²⁺ Ca²(OH⁻)

Rules for naming ions

Write the name of the cation first, then anion; anion should be changed so it ends in "-ide" if not a polyatomic ion (lithium chloride); if a polyatomic ion, anion stays same (ammonium); if cation is a transition metal, include charge in Roman numerals (Iron III)

Confirming test

A test that proves if an ion is present in a substance or not (positive vs. negative results); the judge is color change and precipitate formation

Precipitate

An insoluble, usually milky white solid that can appear during confirming tests

Control

A solution that has no ions in it, as a reference for the water samples (de- ionized/ distilled water)

Reference

A solution containing a set (large) amount of ions in it, to compare the water samples with

Model

Reprensentations of atoms and molecules

Macroscopic

Visible with the naked eye

Data

Collected by quantitative/ qualitative tests

Row 1: +1; Row 2: +2; Row 13: +3; Row 14: +-4; Row 15: -3; Row 16: -2; Row 17: -1

Ions in each row of the periodic table of elements

Hydrogen (H₂); Nitrogen (N₂); Oxygen (O₂); Flourine (F₂); Chlorine (Cl₂); Bromine (Br₂); Iodine (I₂)

Diatomic Molecules

Alligators, turtles, snakes, ibises, otters

Animals found in the Hillsborough River

54 miles

Length of Hillsborough River

20 counties

Counties of Hillsborough River

The Green Swamp of Polk Valley

Hillsborough River begins

Tanic acid from leaves is taken into rivers by rainwater

Why the Hillborough River turns dark brown in the rainy season

Pollution (bacteria); water carries too many nutrients; water with not enough oxygen; wastewater (treated water)

Problems with Hillsborough River from tributaries

4- Base Project

Economical way of controlling flooding, by shutting off the flow of water during flooding and diverts it to land; also, preserve nearby forests helps battle flooding

Home properties erode into the water

When people build homes too close to the Hillsborough River

Large- mouth bass; mercury

People (children) can't eat ____ in the Hillsborough RIver because they have large amounts of ____

Use un-dissolvable, nontoxic water; wash vehicles over concrete; pick up after pets; keep pollution off streets

4 ways to preserve the Hillsborough River

The dam of the Middle Hillsborough River

WHere 70% of Tampa's drinking water originates

There is a lack of flowing water; fertilizers wash into the water, and the scientists have to rid of the algae that forms by using chemicals

Why the Lower Hillsborough River's water quality is usually low

An extension of Tampa Bay, where fresh water/ salt water mix

Why the area under the dam is an estuary

Port of Tampa

Where the Hillsborough River shipping traffic has now been diverted

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