n. a period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.
n. a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
n. a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin.
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
relating to the Church of England
(theology) being determined in advance
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
a reformer who protested against the abuses of the Catholic Church in the 1500s
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trent in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Father of Humanism
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Best known Christian Humanist. taught religion as a way of life. Wrote the "Praise of Folly"
German printer; in 1448 he invented a printing press that used movable type
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. Started the Protestant movement.
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Established the Church of England in 1532.
ruled from 1558-1603; followed a policy that was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes. Sets up a national Church, is declared head of the Anglican Church, establishes a state Church that moderates Catholics and Protestants, allowed priests to marry, allowed sermons to be delivered in English, and made the Book of Common Prayer more acceptable to Catholics.