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# Biostatistics 4, 5, & 6

 PredictorThe action or event that we believe may explain an outcome. Often the control vs. treatment group in clinical trials.
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#### English

Predictor The action or event that we believe may explain an outcome. Often the control vs. treatment group in clinical trials.
Response The action or event that we believe is related to the predictor. The variable we are measuring to look for an effect in clinical trials.
Type 1 Error Wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis, i.e. finding there is a significant difference when there really isn't one. α is the probability of committing this error.
Type 2 Error Wrongly failing to reject the null hypothesis, i.e. finding no significant difference when there really is one. β is the probability of committing this error.
Power The probability of NOT committing at Type 2 Error.

1-β
Conditional Probabilities Probabilities only pertaining to certain cases. Ex: α only applies if the null is true. β only applies if the alternative is true.
Effect of Sample Size and Relative Risk Factor on Power Increasing sample size increases power

Increasing relative risk factor (expected?) increases power.
Familywise Error Rate Probability that at least one of a family of variants (genetic in our example) is declared associated with an outcome (disease status) given that none are truly associated. Much larger than individual alpha level. Close to 1 for study with millions of variants.
Bonferoni Method Divide your desired α (0.05 by convention) by the number of tests run so that the α of each individual test is much lower.

α (overall) / n = α (each test)
Correlation A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

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