Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson, it was a written document that justified the American Revolution. Made on July 4th, 1776.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Clear restrictions on what a government can or cannot do. There was an idea that the government was to protect natural rights and be built on the consent of the governed.
Rights that all human beings had, no matter what government they were under. (Life Liberty and Property to Life Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness)
Natural law is what governs people, determined by the moral sense of the people. It is what gave birth to natural rights, a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society
Writer of The Second Treatise of Civil Government he believed in natural rights;English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Writing Leviathan in 1651, Thomas Hobbes said that it was human nature for war and that people need an absolute ruler. People thought humans were "self-interested."
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution made, though failed, it was a government that overwhelmingly dominant by the States. Created in 1777 , adopted in 1781.
Led by Captain Daniel Shays, the rebellion was a series of armed attacks to prevent judges from foreclosing on farms.
believed that government should run on separation of powers, checks and balances
Consent of the Governed
This type of government gave the idea that the people would be the ones who decide whom shall lead them and how.
Known today as "parties" or interests groups that hold the risk of causing massive instability. Sources of conflict.
The 10th amendment is the "state's amendment" which means that all laws not specifically addressed in the Constitution will be reserved to the states and the people to decide.
Made by the delegates of Connecticut, Roger Sherman and William Johnson, they made the solution of having two houses in Congress. They made the Senate and the House of Representatives borrowed from the New Jersey Plan and Virginia Plan.
To prevent the factions from taking control they had the Seperation of Powers, Checks and Balances, and Limiting Majority Control and made a Federal System of Government so that no one would be able to take full control
Separation of Powers
This made the government branches independent of each other. That way, no single branch could control the other and power wasn't divided by rather shared by the three places.
Checks and Balances
This made the government powers limited by requiring that the power to be balanced among the different government institutions and constrain the activities of one another.
To avoid a direct democracy and "power of the mob" the republic was made which was a system of representatives from the public had power to do things.
These Federalist papers appeared through James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, whom wrote these papers defending the constitution and added political philosophy as well.
Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights were the first 10 amendments which were put into the constitution to ease the fears of the people to protect individual liberties.
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
change or addition that becomes part of the written language of the Constitution itself through one of four methods set forth in the Constitution
a government in which all key powers are given to the national or central government
a joining of several groups for a common purpose, the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Informal Constitutional Change
Originally, the Constitutional Convention was made to just modify the Articles of Confederation, NOT to completely trash it
Programs that the federal government requires states to implement without federal funding.
constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the greatest law of the land
powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution
Full Faith and Credit
first words of Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, which requires states to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings" of all the other states.
Privileges and Immunities
refers to Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution, which guarantees that "citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens" in any other state in the United States.
Duel Federalism/Layer Cake Federalism
Belief that having seperate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement, federalism characterized by a national government exercising its power independently from state governments.
Marble Cake Federalism
the theory that all levels of government can work together to solve common problems. Also know as cooperative federalism.
National govt's use of fiscal policy to influence states through the granting/withholding of appropriations
Federal grants to states or local governments that are for specific programs or projects.
federal funds provided for a broad purpose, unrestricted by detailed requirements and regulations