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John Calvin and Institutes of the Christian Religion

He was the creator of Calvinism, which became the dominant theological credo of the New England Puritans, the Scottish Presbyterians, the French Huguenots, and the Dutch Reformed Church.His basic doctrine is in his 1536 work Institutes of the Christian Religion. He said God was all-powerful and all-good. Humans, because of original sin, were weak and wicked. Calvin also lists here his idea of predestination

Predestination

this was Calvin's idea that since creation some souls - the elect - had been destined for heaven and others for hell. There was no way to be certain if you were one of the elect, but Calvinists looked for signs of conversion, which was an intense personal experience in which God revealed to the elect that they were going to heaven.

"visible saints"

after experiencing conversion, the elect were supposed to lead "sanctified" lives, demonstrating by their holy behavior that they were saved.

Puritans

After Henry VIII's split with the Roman Catholic Church, these were people who wanted to undertake a total purification of English Christianity and wipe all traces of Catholicism from the Anglican Church. Many came from the commercially depressed woolen districts and Calvinism fed their social unrest and provided spiritual comfort.

Separatists

The most devout Puritans believed that only "visible saints" should be admitted to church membership, but they Church of England enrolled everyone. They vowed to break away entirely from the Church of England, which spurred James I to threaten to harass them out of the land.

the Mayflower

a group of Separatists who had left England for Holland then after 12 years had become distressed with the "Dutchification' of their children decided to depart for the New World. They received rights from the Virginia Company to settle under its jurisdiction. The Mayflower was their ship and they arrived off the coast of New England in 1620.

Captain Miles Standish

One of the passengers on the Mayflower, he was not a Separatists but a soldier. He later rendered indispensable service as an Indian fighter and negotiator.

the Mayflower Compact

this was a document drawn up by the Pilgrim leaders that was an agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon. It was not a constitution.

William Bradford

He was a Pilgrim and also a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch. He was chosen to be governor 30 times in the annual elections. One of his major worries was that independent, non-Puritan settlers might corrupt his town.

Massachusetts Bay Company

In 1629 a group of non-Separatist Puritans fearing for their faith and England's future, secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. They wanted to build a settlement in Massachusetts, and brought their charter with them using it as a kind of constitution. It was started off on a large scale and attracted many refugees.

the "Great Migration" - 1630s

Continuing turmoil in England caused about 70,000 refugees to leave England in the 1630s. Not all of them were Puritans and only about 20,000 came to Massachusetts. Many were attracted to the West Indies, especially Barbados.

John Winthrop

The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was a successful attorney and manor lord in England, but accepted the offer to be governor because he believed that he had a "calling" from God to lead the new religious experiment. He served as governor or deputy governor for 19 years and helped the colony to prosper and become the biggest and most influential of the New England outposts

"We shall be as a city upon a hill."

This was said by Governor Winthrop. The Massachusetts Bay Colony wanted to be a beacon to humanity. The Puritan colonists believed that they had a covenant with God, an agreement to build a holy society that would be a model for humankind.

John Cotton

A prominent clergy member in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He had been educated at Cambridge, a Puritan citadel, but emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution for his criticism of the Church of England. He devoted himself to defending the government's duty to enforce religious rules in the colony.

the "Protestant ethic"

This was a serious commitment to work and to engage in worldly pursuits.

the "Blue Law State"

This became a nickname for Connecticut because of the blue paper on which "sumptuary laws" were printed. These fined such things as kissing in public.

Wigglesworth

was a clergyman who wrote a poem called "The Day of Doom," which became very popular. It described the fate of the damned.

Anne Hutchinson

She was a Puritan woman in the Massachusetts Bay colony. She was an exceptionally intelligent, strong-willed, talkative mother of 14.She claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and created the idea of antinomianism. She was eventually banished and went to Rhode Island.

Antinomianism

Anne Hutchinson's idea that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of neither God nor man. This was high heresy.

Roger Williams

He was a popular Salem minister and an extreme Separatist. He wanted his fellow clergymen to make a clean break with the Church of England. He also challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's charter, which he condemned for seizing the land from the Indians without fair compensation. He went on to deny the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior. In 1635 he as ordered to be banished and in 1636 he fled and set up Rhode Island.

"Rogues Island"

This was the nickname for Rhode Island. It was more liberal than any other colony, and even had complete freedom of religion. There was manhood suffrage from the start and freedom of opportunity. Many exiles and malcontents stayed there because they were not welcome anywhere else.

Thomas Hooker

He led a group of Boston Puritans into the Hartford area. He settled the Connecticut River colony.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

in 1639, the settlers of the Connecticut River colony drafted this document. It was a modern constitution which established a regime democratically controlled by the "substantial" citizens.

Squanto

He was a Wampanoag Indian who had learned English from a ship's captain who had kidnapped him some years earlier. He acted as a translator with the Indians and Pilgrims.

the Wampanoags

They were the Indian tribe that lived in Plymouth

Massasoit

He was the Wampanoag chief. He signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate the first Thanksgiving after the autumn harvests.

the Pequot War, 1637

This was the first was between natives and Europeans in British North America. It culminated in the Puritan militia's vicious burning out and slaughtering nearly 300 Pequot. The defeat of the Pequot eliminated armed resistance to the new settlements of New Haven and Guildford.

Metacom (King Philip)

Massasoit's son, he forged an alliance between the tribes and launched a series of coordinated assaults on English villages throughout New England. At the end, his wife and son were sold into slavery. He was captured, beheaded, and drawn and quartered.

King Philip's War, 1676

Led by Metacom, it was a series of attacks on English villages. When the war ended, 52 Puritan towns had been attacked and 12 had been destroyed. It slowed the westward march of English settlement in New England for several decades, but inflicted a lasting defeat on the Indians who were dispirited and disbanded.

the New England Confederation (1643-1686)

This was formed by four colonies for the primary purpose of defense against foes or potential foes. Purely inter-colonial problems came within the jurisdiction of the confederation. Every member colony, regardless of size, got 2 votes. It consisted of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven, and the scattered valley settlements of Connecticut. It ws the first notable milestone on the road toward colonial unity.

Dominion of New England

When Charles II was restored to the throne, he was determined to take an active had in the management of the colonies. He hated the New England Confederation, so he created the Dominion of New England. It was imposed from London and included all New England and later New York and East and West Jersey. It was also aimed at bolstering colonial defense in the event of war with the Indians. It was also designed to promote efficiency in the administration of the English Navigation Laws.

Sir Edmund Andros

He was a conscientious but tactless English military man who was named head of the Dominion of New England. He was generally hated. He curbed town meetings, laid heavy restrictions on the courts, the press, and the schools, and revoked all land titles. He taxed the people without consent and enforced the Navigation Laws.

Navigation Laws

These were unpopular laws that cutting American trade with countries not owned by England. They caused smuggling to become much more popular.

the Glorious Revolution

in 1688, it was a revolution in England that dethroned James II and replaced him with William and Mary. This caused the Dominion of New England to collapse and Sir Edmund to try and flee.

"salutary neglect"

From 1689 to 1691, unrest rocked New York and Maryland and the new monarchs relaxed the royal grip on colonial trade. The Navigation Laws were only weakly enforced.

Henry Hudson

He was an English explorer employed by the Dutch East India Company who disregarded orders to sail northeast and instead went into the Delaware Bay and New York Bay. In 1609 he went up the Hudson River in hope of finding a route through the continent.

Dutch East India and West India Companies

The Dutch East India Company was virtually a state within a state that operated in the East Indies. It employed Henry Hudson. It bought Manhattan Island from the Indians for worthless trinkets.

The Dutch West India Company

was much less powerful. It maintained profitable enterprises in the Caribbean. It was less interested in trading than raiding. It also established outposts in Africa and a thriving sugar industry in Brazil.

New Netherland

A colony in the Hudson River area settled in 1623. It was established y the Dutch West India Company for its quick-profit fur trade, but was never more than a secondary interest for most of the founders.

New Amsterdam

Later known as New York City, it was a company town run by and for the Dutch East India Company in the interest of the stockholders. Settlers had little freedom and the colony had a strong aristocratic tint.

Patroonships

They were vast feudal estates fronting the Hudson River granted to promoters who agreed to settle 50 people on them.

Wall Street

It was a wall built on Manhattan Island built as a defense measure from the Indians.

Peter Stuyvesant

The ablest of the director-generals of New Amsterdam who commanded a small military expedition in 1655 that captured the main Swiss fort after a bloodless siege. This ended Swedish rule.

the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)

They were a group of dissenters who arose in the mid-1600s. They refused to support the Church of England with taxes, built simple meetinghouses, congregated without a paid clergy, "spoke up" in meetings when moved, and kept their hats on in the presence of their betters. They took no oaths, refused military service, and advocated passive resistance.

William Penn

He converted to be a Quaker after serving in the military and suffered much persecution. He wanted to build an asylum for his people and in 1681 got a grant from the king to the area of Pennsylvania. It was the best advertised of the colonies and more carefully planned. Freedom of worship was granted a representative assembly elected, and there was no tax-supported state church. The death penalty was only imposed for treason and murder. No provision was made for defense and no restrictions were placed on immigration.

Chief Tammany

The chief of the Indians living in Pennsylvania. Penn bought the land from him in advance.

Characteristics and advantages of the Middle Colonies?

The soil was fertile and the expanse of land was broad They came to be known as the "bread colonies" Broad rivers tapped the fur trade of the interior and had few waterfalls, which encouraged milling and manufacturing Industry abounded especially lumbering and shipbuilding Rivers and harbors stimulated commerce and the growth of seaports Landholdings and local government were intermediate They were ethnically mixed There was an unusual degree of religious toleration and democratic control Desirable land was more easily aquired

What were "freedom dues"?

They were tools like clothes, and ax and hoe, and a few barrels of corn given to indentured servants after their service was over.

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