During the first Ice Age, water froze into _____ which locked up large amounts of water.
Ocean levels dropped and a land bridge apperared called ____.
______ ______ followed large wooly mammoths and mastodons accross the land bridge causing the migration of people from one region to another over a long period of time.
______ or remains of objects made by humans
These 1st Americans learned new processes of breeding plants or animals called ______.
Native Americans began to flourish and form societies which grew and developed into distinct ______.
1st Europeans to reach the Americas around 1000 AD
sailed west and created a settlement in present day Newfoundland the Vikings called Vinland
period in Europe where trade and communication were limited
vassals swore loyalty to a lord in exchange for land, persons birth usually determined place in society
life in the middle ages revolved around____, large estates
this influenced daily life, a center of education, advisor to leaders, and benefactor of the arts
Europeans encountered new ideas and goods from ____ traders. This is one cause of exploration.
holy war; people sought to aquire goods found in travels to holy land
reopened trade westward Europeans sought goods from China
African Trading Kingdoms
Europeans sought to bypass merchants who carried goods across the desert
people sought to gain greater profits by selling rare goods
joint stock companies
companies that shared risk and reward
a member of roalty that advances navigation and sea voyages
Portuguese explorer. explored west Africa; first European to sail aroun the tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. explored Indian Ocean; descovered Sea Route to Asia
Spanish Explorer. sought a westward rout to Asia; "descovered Americas"
Spanish Explorer. his stories cought Europeans imagination of "New World"; first to reallize that America was a new continent
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish Explorer. explored Panama;1st European to locate the Pacific
Spanish Explorer. explored tip of South America, Pacific and Indian Oceans; First known to circumnavigate the globe
French Explorer. explored along the St. Lawrence River; established Frinch settlement at Montreal
Samuel de Champlain
French Explorer. explored along St Lawrence River; 1st European to reach the Great Lakes; founded Quebec
Dutch Explorer. explored present-day New York and Hudson River
English Explorer. traveled along coast of North America and Newfoundland
English Explorer. explored upper Canada
Explorers carried plants, animals, and diseases to the "New World" of the Americas. They also brought back plants and animals to the "Old World"- Asia, Africa, and Europe. This transfer became known as the __________ _________.