## Motion

##### Created by:

kiki777  on September 10, 2010

##### Description:

motion vocabulary

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# Motion

 motionwhen an object changes position over time when compared with a reference point
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#### Definitions

motion when an object changes position over time when compared with a reference point
speed the rate at which an object moves
velocity the speed of an object in a particular direction
acceleration the rate at which velocity changes
force a push or pull
newton (N) a unit in which scientists express force
net force a force that results from combining all the forces exerted on an object
friction a force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces that are touching
gravity a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses
weight a measure of gravitational force exerted on an object
mass the amount of matter in an object, and its value does not change
formula for acceleration v(2)-v(1)/t
formula for average speed distance/time
four types of friction sliding, rolling, fluid, and static
Law of Universal Friction the relationships between gravitational force, mass, and distance and applies to all things in the universe
formula for velocity distance/time + direction
unit for acceleration m/s/s
unit for average speed m/s
unit for velocity m/s + direction
unit for force N
resultant velocity the combination of two or more velocities
terminal velocity when an object falls at a constant velocity
free fall the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity
projectile motion the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth
inertia the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
momentum property of a moving object that depends on its mass and velocity
stress the physical pressure, pull, or other force exerted on one thing by another; strain.
strain alter the shape of (something) by stress
load anything put in or on something for conveyance or transportation; freight; cargo
tension the act of stretching or straining
compression applying pressure
torsion the twisting of a body by two equal and opposite torques
truss any of various structural frames based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of straight members subject only to longitudinal compression, tension, or both: functions as a beam or cantilever to support bridges, roofs, etc
arch an upwardly curved construction, as of steel or timber functioning in the manner of a masonry arch
buckling to shrivel, by applying heat or pressure; bend; curl
abutments a masonry mass supporting and receiving the thrust of part of an arch or vault
Newton's 1st Law of Motion An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion the net force of an object equals its mass times its acceleration
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion a principle that states that for every action there is an equal reaction in the opposite direction
Triangle for Newton's 2nd Law of Motion force over mass and acceleration (force/mass or acc; mass*acc)
work occurs when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force
joule the unit to express work; also known as the newton-meter (N·m)
power the rate of which work is done
watt a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second
triangle for power w over p and t (w/p or t; p*t)
triangle for work w over f and d (w/f or d; f*d)
machine a device that helps make work easier by changing the size or direction of a force
work input the work you do on a machine
work output the work done by a machine
mechanical advantage tells you how many times the machine multiplies force-- compares input force and output force
mechanical efficiency a comparison of a machine's work output with the work input
triangle for mechanical advantage of [output force] over if [input force] and ma (ot/if or ma; ma*if)
formula for mechanical efficiency mechanical efficiency=work output over work input*100
lever a simple machine consisting of a bar that pivots at a fixed point, called a fulcrum
3 classes:
·first-class lever- fulcrum between input force and load
·second-class lever- load between fulcrum and input force
·third-class lever- input force between fulcrum and load
inclined plane a simple machine that is a straight, slanted surface
wedge a double inclined plane that moves
wheel and axle a simple machine consisting of 2 circular objects of different sizes
pulley a simple machine consisting of a grooved wheel that holds a rope or cable
compound machine a machine made up of two or more simple machines

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