In Piagetian theory, creating new schemas to incorporate new information that cannot be assimilated into existing schemas.
Students continue developing proficiency in their first language while adding English to their program. This is very effective and leads to proficient bilinguals because skills learned in their primary language will transfer to their second language. Eventually they will be proficient both in primary language as well as English.
Proposed solution to a problem that is the exact opposite of an existing thesis.
In Piagetian theory, the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure (schema).
A strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner's original language and the second language(majority).
some characteristics are relatively resistant to environmental forces, develop regardless to environment; narrow developmental path these characteristics take
Changes in mental skills that occur through increasing maturity and experience.
Concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage of development: 7-12 yrs old; children become able to mentally manipulate internal representations of concrete objects.
recognition that even when the physical appearance of something changes, the underlying quantity doesn't change
certain points during development when individuals are particularly tuned to various aspects of development
recognition that most real life problems do not have one right answer with everything else being absolutely wrong; progressing from thesis & antithesis to synthesis
in Piaget's theory, the "out-of-balance" state that occurs when a person realizes that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation
development that occurs more or less simultaneously in multiple areas (domains)
development that is isolated to one domain at a time, and is not transferred naturally
dynamic assessment environment
testing situation designed to assess zone of proximal development in which tester gives children problems to solve and graded hints if they can't solve it right away
The thinking in the preoperational stage of cognitive development where children believe everyone sees the world fro the same perspective as he or she does.
In Piagetian theory, the process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences.
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Piaget's term for a child's uneven cognitive performance; an inability to solve certain problems requiring the same mental operations
The process of learning language in which children form hypotheses about linguistic forms, and test them in their environment.
process through which a learner gradually incorporates socially based activities into his or her internal cognitive processes
action to improve a child's cognitive, sociocultural or behavioral development
language acquisition device
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
language determines the way we think
A theory that states that language influences our thinking but doesn't determine it. Thus, if we don't have a word for something in our language, this theory predicts it will be difficult, but not impossible, to think about it or notice it.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
mediated learning experience
discussion between an adult and a child in which the adult helps the child make sense of an event they have mutually experienced by explaining events without directly instructing
The realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight
application of a word too widely beyond its legitimate use
using word forms that follow a rule but are incorrect because of failure to recognize an exception
TYPE OF THINKING BEYOND FORMAL OPERATIONS, INVOLVING GREATER AWARNESS OF THE COMPLEXITY OF REAL-LIFE SITUATIONS
the second stage in Piaget's theory (ages 2-7), marked by well developed mental representation and the use of language
Arlin's stage after formal operational, finding and asking questions that need to be solved
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
mental representations of external stimuli
the understanding that actions can be undone or reversed (concrete operational stage of Piagetian theory)
process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
The cognitive structure utilized to make sense of the world.
relations between relations in analogical reasoning (ex: poodle is to dogs as siamese is to cats)
the first stage in Piaget's theory (0-2 yrs) of cognitive development, during which infants acquire information about the world through their senses and respond reflexively
a theory that emphasizes the role of social interaction and specific culteral practices in development of cognitive skills (Vygotsky)
static assessment environment
testing situation in which children solve problems without help or feedback
Partially or completely losing the first language as a second language is acquired.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
the combination of opposing ideas into a complex whole
speech that uses simple syntax in two or three word utterances to communicate simple meaning - develops about age 3
limiting application of a word to have a more narrow meaning than it really does (ex: only poodles are called 'dog')
zone of proximal development
in Vygotsky's theory, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they receive proper guidance and instruction