standing erect, face forward, limbs hanging to side, palms forward
lying face up
lying face down
right / left
from model's perspective
close to head
what is another word for superior?
close to tail
what is another word for inferior?
what is another word for anterior?
what is another word for posterior?
close to the point of attachment
far from the point of attachment
toward the body's midline (i.e. nose)
away from the body's midline (i.e. eyes)
toward / on the surface (external)
away from the surface (internal)
runs vertically through the body, separating right and left (though not necessarily equally)
a sagittal plane in which R & L are split equally
what is another word for midsagittal plane?
parallel to the ground
what is another word for transverse plane?
vertical from R-L, dividing the body into anterior and posterior
what is another word for frontal plane?
any non-right angled cut
a right angle cut length-wise, through the long angle
a right angle cut width-wise, across the long angle
longer than wide (includes many limbs)
round or nearly cubed (wrist, carpal)
thin, flattened shape, usually curved (ribs, sternum, some skull bones)
all other bones (vertebrae, facial bones)
the long, relatively straight main body of a long bone; region of primary ossification. mostly compact bone; the ends of it have a spongy layer underneath the compact bone layer
what is another word for diaphysis?
a hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of joints internally
the end regions of a long bone; regions of secondary ossification
separates the epiphysis and diaphysis, where growth in length occurs
what the epiphyseal plate turns into when growth stops and it ossifies
the large, internal space of a long bone filled with marrow
connective tissue membrane, covering the outer surface of bone, split into 2 layers: 1 outer, fibrous and dense layer that contains blood vessels and nerves, another one that is a single layer of bone cells
thin, cnnective tissue membrane that lines the inner cavities of bone
has many spaces arranged into traveculae; found mostly in epiphysis
what is another word for spongy bone?
bundles of support fibers
dense with few spaces; organized into osteons; forms diaphysis; covers spongy bone in epiphysis
any of the passages (small holes) letting nutrient vessels into the medullary cavity of bone
the main part of the bone
the enlarged, often rounded end of bone, proximal end
the constriction between head and body
the edge of bone
what is another word for the margin/
a bend in the bone
an arm-like branch off the body of a bone, beyond the angle
a smooth, rounded articular process
a small, flattened articular surface
types of ridges
line, crest, spine
a long, thin projection, often with a rough surface
a prominent ridge
a very high ridge (a relatively long, thin projection or bump)
types of projections
process, tubercle, tuberosity, trochanter, epicondyle, lingula, hamulus, cornu
a prominent projection
a small, rounded bump
a knob, larger than a tubercle; roughened surface
tuberosities on the proximal femur
a projection upon a condyle
a flat, tongue-shaped process
a hook-shaped process
a horn-shaped process
types of openings
canal, fissure, sinus
a long, tunnel-like foramen, usually a passage for nerves or blood vessels
what is another word for a canal?
a naroow, stilt-like opening
a cavity within a cranial bone
what is another name for a sinus?
types of depressions
fossa, notch, fovea, groove, alveolus
a general term for a depression (a broad, shallow depressed area)
a depression in the margin of a bone
a little pit at the head of a bone
a deep, narrow depression that accommodates a vessel, nerve or tendon
what is another word for a groove?
a deep pit or socket
a membranous area on a newborn's skull that makes it flexible during birth and allows for the growth of the head
what is another word for the fontanel?
the line through the frontal bone of the skull
the soft spot in the middle top of the skull
what is another word for the frontal fontanel?
the soft spot at the base of the skull
what is another name for the occipital fontanel?
the soft spot on the side of the skull towards the face
what is another name for the sphenoidal?
the soft spot at the lower base of the skull
what is another name for the mastoid fontanel?
the line on the side of the skull, mid-way between the front and back
seams/articulation between bones of the skull
a projection that contributes to an articulation
the region where adjacent bones contact each other (a joint)
an opening through a bone