the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors
suggested we develop a scale on "quality of life", an anthropologist who reported how differently human groups react to similar behaviors
Components of Symbolic Culture
symbols, gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores
groups whose members share beliefs and common experiences that set them apart from other members of a culture.
sociologists who outlined a set of 15 values that are central to the American way of life.
Williams 15 values list
achievement and success, individualism, hard work, efficiency, science & technology, material comfort, freedom, democracy, equality, group superiority, education, religiosity, romantic love
values that conflict with another or are mutually exclusive (race, women's rights, etc)
leisure,self-fullfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, concern for the environment
Anthropologist who compiled a list of over 60 cultural universals but found they WAY they are done is not universal
was an expert on ants. Wrote the book about the cornerstone of interdisciplinary approach to animal and human behavior.; human behavior result of natural selection
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Found that the Xq28 gene is not found in all homosexuals and not all that have the gene are not homosexuals
the process by which cultural characteristics or cultural patterns spread from one group of people to another and from one culture to another
heredity vs. environment
limits of certian physical and mental abilities are established by heredity and attitudes are result of environment; Nature vs Nurture
Skeels & Dye
found absence of social interation causes low IQ - high inteligence depends on early close relationships with humans. must be done before age 13
husband and wife whose research found that physical contact not feeding creates bonding. also found that periods of isolation (especially lengthy) can affect stage of learning that may not be able to be compensated for.
the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live
Charles Horton Cooley
used the term "looking-glass self" to explain that we see ourselves as we imagine others see us
Looking glass 3 elements
imagine how we appear to others, how we interpret others reactions, we develop a self concept
George Herbert Mead
personalities are shaped by how we think people see us; "self" emerges from interaction with people; play is an important role; generalized other; I & ME
experiment of blindfolded and not blindfolded children and game rules being explained. Older children compensated for the blindfolded children and younger children did not.
Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do)., founder of psychoanalysis
central principle of sociology
that factors such as social class and people's roles in groups underlie their behavior - conflicts with Freud's assertion that the social group in which we are born decides our norms and values that restrain our biological drives
His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided into 2 stages. 1. pre-conventional, 2. conventional, and 3. post-conventional. His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior; studied only boys
Presented feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; believed women's moral sense guided by relationships;
an anthropologist studied emotions in several countries. He concluded that everyone experiences six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear happiness, sadness, and surprise. Ekman stated that emotions are built into our biology, "a product of our genes."
the ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female
Goldberg & Lewis
study of mothers that reward daughters for being passive and dependant and sons for being independant and active
agents of socialization
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff
Garfinkl to describe an attemp to make the self by stripping away the individuals current identity and putting a new one in its place
analyzed documents and paintings from medieval Europe and concluded that before 1600 European societies had little or no concept of childhood as we know it.