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Absorption

The way the body takes in meds

Buccal

Between gum and cheek

Canister

Holds the medication in a MDI.

Cumulative effect

Occurs when the drug is metabolized or excreted more slowly than the rate at which it is being administered.

Distribution

Drug makes its way through body

Informed consent

Patient is educated about the med & decisions regarding the med.

Inhalation

Aerosol spray

Instillations

Liquid medications usually administered as drops, ointment, or sprays.

Intradermal

Under the skin

Intramuscular

Into the muscle

Intravenous

Into the vein

Meniscus

The line of desired dose for liquid medication

Metabolism

Biotransformation

Metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

Inhaler with a certain number of preset dosages.

Parenteral

Directly through the skin: intadermal, subQ, IM, IV

Pharmacogenetics

Influence of genetic factors on drug response

Right assessment

Appropriate data must be collected before administration of a drug.

Right client

Making sure you're giving meds to the correct person. JCo requires 2 forms of identification.

Right documentation

Nurse must immediately record appropriate info about the drug administered.

Right dose

The dose prescribed for a particular client.

Right drug

Client receives the drug that was prescribed.

Right evaluation

Requires the effectiveness of the medication be determined by the client's response to the medication.

Right route

Med is delivered through the right route: orally, subQ, etc.

Right time

Med is delivered at the right interval.

Right to education

Clients must receive accurate and thorough info about the med & how it relates to their situation.

Right to refuse

Clients can refuse to take a medication. Must be documented & practitioner notified.

Spacers

Enhance the delivery of medications from MDI.

Stock drug method

Drugs are dispensed to all clients from the same containers.

Subcutaneous

Into the subcutaneous tissue (subQ)

Sublingual

under tongue for venous absorption.

Suppository

Rectal/vaginal

Tolerance

Patient has diminished reactivity to a drug.

Topical

Applied to the skin in a cream/ointment.

Toxicity

First adverse symptoms that occur at a particular dose.

Transdermal

Delivered through the skin. Patch.

Unit dose method

Drugs are individually wrapped and labeled for single doses.

Z-track technique

Injection method that prevents seepage into the subcutaneous space.

The nurse practices the "10 rights" of drug administration to ensure which of the following?

Safe drug administration

"Give Tylenol 650 mg q3-4h as needed for headache" is an example of which of the following categories of drug orders?

PRN

A nurse is administering a medication to a client. The nurse tells the client the rationale for the medication. This nurse is observing the client's right to:

informed consent

During administration of eye drops, the nurse should teach the client to prevent systemic absorption of the drug by doing which of the following?

Gently press on the lacrimal duct

A nurse is preparing to administer an IM injection to an 8-month-old infant. The primary intramuscular injection site for infants is the:

Vastus lateralis

A nurse administers an injection using the Z-track method. The nurse instructs the patient that the Z-track technique is designed to accomplish which of the following?

Prevent the medication from seeping into the subQ tissue

A nurse prepares to administer an ear medication to a 2-year-old child. The nurse correctly:

Pulls the ear down & backward

A nurse is ordered to administer a medication via the sublingual route. The nurse correctly places the medication:

Under the tongue

A client has been receiving pain medication secondary to surgery. Two weeks postoperatively, the client reports that "the medication doesn't seem to work as well as it did." The nurse should first assess for:

Tolerance to the medication

A client with chronic angina is ordered to receive nitroglycerin via a patch. Which of the following is true about the application of this transdermal medication?

Remove the old patch

A nurse is administering an intradermal PPD to test for client exposure to the tuberculosis bacterium. What demonstrates the correct method to administer this injection?

Use a 10-degree angle to insert a 25-gauge needle.

A client returns to the nursing unit from conscious sedation after having a fracture set and placed in a cast. The client expresses pain 3 hours after the procedure. The choice of medication and route will be based on the following information:

The client's ability to swallow should be assessed prior to giving pain medication orally.

A nurse is preparing to administer a subcutaneous injection of morphine sulfate to a client. The client's height, weight, and muscle mass are within normal limits. Which of the following describes the appropriate needle size and angle for this injection?

25-gauge needle, 45-degree angle

A nurse is preparing to administer an ointment to the eye and is preparing the needed supplies. Select all of the following needed to complete this task:

Clean gloves, medicated ointment, sterile gauze, tissues.

Intradermal

Needle Size: 25-27g; 3/8-5/8"
Angle: 10-15 degree
Site(s): Ventral midforearm, chest, back

SubQ

Needle Size: 25-27g; 1/2-5/8"
Angle: 45-90 degree
Site(s):Abdomen, hips, upper back, upper arms, lateral thighs

IM

Needle Size: 20-23g; 1-1.5"
Angle: 90 degree
Site(s): Ventrogluteal, deltoid, dorsogluteal, vastus lateralis

IV

Needle Size: Adults- 20-21g; 1-1.5"
Infants- 24g; 1"
Children- 22g; 1"
Site(s): Usually arm. Head, & feet can be used in infants.

The injection site that is well-defined by bony anatomic landmarks is _____.

ventrogluteal

The preferred site for intramuscular injections for infants & children is _____.

Vastus lateralis

The site that is easily accessible but not suitable for repeated injections or injections >2ml is _____

Deltoid

The preferred site for the Z-track technique is _____.

Gluteal

The site (not visible to the client) that has the danger of injury if incorrect technique is used is _____.

Dorsogluteal

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