Chp 8 Vocab APUSH: Identify the main facts concerning the following people

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Aaron Burr

New York Senator, Thomas Jefferson's Vice- President, and archrival of Alex Ham. He is best known for the duel between himself and Ham, which resulted in Ham's death; he was tried and acquitted for treason involving a plan to separate the U.S. and combine with Spain.

Burr Conspiracy

Scheme that led to the secession of the Louisiana Territory from the U.S; captured in 1807 and charged with treason, Burr was acquitted by the U.S. Supreme Court.

Albert Gallatin

Was the Sec of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He was called the " Watchdog of the Treasury," and proved to be as able as Alex Ham. He agreed with Jeff that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget.

Andrew Jackson

a major-general he defeated the Brit at New Orleans in the War of 1812.The 7th President of the U.S. He represented Tennessee as a Congressman and Senator, and as

Daniel Webster

A leading attorney who argued many famous cases in the Supreme Court. Congressman from New Hampshire and senator representing MA.

Henry Clay

Whig party leader, KY congressman and senator, Sec of State under John Quincy Adams and an unsuccessful candidate for the Presidency in 1824, 1832, and 1844.

James Monroe

VA senator and anti-federalist who became the 5th President of the U.S.

John C. Calhoun

South Carolina congressman, senator, vice president under John Quincy Adams as well as Andrew Jackson. At first a nationalist, he later became a defender of states rights.

John Marshall

Chief Justice of Supreme Court, he believed in strong federal government. His most enduring decisions included Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Gibbons v. Ogden and McCulloch v. Maryland.

John Quincy Adams

Sixth President of the United States, he served as secretary of state under James Monroe. In a close race with Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay, the decision was left up to the House of Representatives. Speaker of the House Henry Clay threw his support behind Adams insuring his victory.

Meriwether Lewis

Lewis of Lewis and Clark Expedition. The expedition was one of the main explorations of the West. The area explored was : The Missouri R. through the Rocky Mts.

Samuel Chase

an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached;was a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, . A lawyer by profession, in 1796 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by president Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791. In 1804, for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials.

Tecumseh

Shawnee leader who attempted to unite Indians in their struggle against the onslaught of settlers taking over their lands.

Toussaint L'Ouverture

(skillfully led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in Santo Domingo). The French were unable to reconquer this valuable island and hence, had no use for Louisiana to serve as a granary for Santo Domingo. The inability of the French to regain possession of the island caused Napoleon to cede the Louisiana territory to the U.S. FOR $15 MIL. ___________military vigor indirectly provoked Napoleon's decision to sell Louisiana to the Americans.

William Clark

Explorer along with Meriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchased Louisiana Territory; was an artists and cartographer. They traveled up the Missouri R., through the Rockies, and to the south of the Columbia R. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration.

William Henry Harrison

became a national hero after the Battle of Tippecanoe (victory fomented war fever against the Brit, who were believed to be aiding the Indians). The last Whig President, he was also the first to die in office (of pneumonia).Governor of the Indiana Territories.

William Marbury

President Adams named him justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Marbury sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place (Marbury v. Madison case)

Zebulon Pike

Early 19th century explorer who investigated the upper regions of the Missi R. valley, the Arkansas R. headwaters in Colorado, and parts of New Mexico.

The Prophet

(The twin brother of the Shawnee Indian Tecumseh); Banded together many of the tribes along the Mississippi River in 1811 to stop the white settlers from pushing farther into the western wilderness. The groups of braves forswore firewater in order to be fit for the last-ditch battle with the whites. Significance: The war hawk Congress sent General William H. Harrison to repel a surprise attack at Tippecanoe and burn the settlement. The war hawks began to feel that the only way to remove Indian menace was to wipe out their Canadian base.

Sacajawea

Shoshoni woman who spent time with Lewis and Clark on their expedition.

Francis Scott Key

After the burning of Washington, D.C., in the War of 1812 he was sent to secure the release of a friend from a British ship in Chesapeake Bay. He watched the British shelling of Fort McHenry during the night of Sept. 13 - 14, 1814; when he saw the U.S. flag still flying the next morning, he wrote the poem "Defense of Fort M'Henry." Published in the Baltimore Patriot, it was later set to the tune of an English drinking song, "To Anacreon in Heaven." The song was adopted as the U.S. national anthem in 1931. Wrote "The Star Spangled Banner" in the War of 1812

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