What is uniformitarianism?
theory stating that the physical, chemical, and biological laws operating today also operated in the geologic past
What contribution did Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, make?
successfully interpreted and publicized uniformitarianism
How did the Earth form?
from an enormous cloud composed mostly of hydrogen and helium with a small percentage of other, heavier elements
What is the nebular hypothesis theory?
the bodies of our solar system formed at the same time from the same cloud (mostly hydrogen and helium with a small percentage of other elements)
What is the difference between relative dating; law of superposition; faunal succession?
(relative dating) events are placed in proper sequence or order without knowing absolute age in years (law of superposition) in an undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks or lava flows, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the one below it (principle of faunal succession) fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, so each time period can be recognized by its fossil content
Name the layers of the Earth (inner to outer)
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, atmosphere
Explain the forces shaping the Earth?
endogenic processes: heat engine (the core) causes plate tectonics which causes volcanism, earthquakes, and mountain building; exogenic processes: solar energy produces heat, the water cycle (evaporation and precipitation), glaciers, and wind (which causes erosion)
______ was developed by humans to help summarize and explain evolutionary changes that have taken place on the Earth. The boundaries between periods are based on abrupt transitions in the fossil record which are thought to correspond to a series of mass extinctions that have occurred on Earth.
Geologic time scale
______________ or _______________ is the theory that the continents drift around the face of the earth as opposed to being permanent, stationary features.
continental drift; plate tectonics
What is the evidence for plate tectonics?
shape of the continents; seismic, volcanic, and geothermal activity at plate boundaries; ocean ridges, mountain building, and sea floor spreading
_______ is the theoretical supercontinent of Wegener's refined hypothesis. It was a single continent extending from pole to pole surrounded by a single huge ocean.
_________ is the supercontinent that supposedly existed before Pangea; part of a drifting land mass that collided with others to form Pangea
__________ is the theory stating that the physical, chemical, and biological laws operating today also operated in the geologic past
The layer which contains the crust and uppermost mantle is known as the _____________.
Located between 350 and 700 km below the surface, the ___________ is an important zone in the mantle that is hot, weak, and capable of gradual flow.
The solid, rocky layer between the crust and outer core which has a maximum thickness of 2885 km (1789 miles) is known as the __________.
The relatively light outer skin or shell of the earth is called the _____________, and it is between 5 to 40 km (3 to 25 miles) thick.
The layer of crust under Earth's continents is known as the ___________________.
Continental crust is composed of ___________________________ rocks.
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
The continental crust is ________ dense and ________ massive than the oceanic crust.
The layer of crust underlying Earth's oceans is the ______________.
The solid center of the earth is the _____________.
The inner core is composed of _____________.
iron and nickel
The liquid layer of molten iron and nickel surrounding the inner core is the ___________.
The center layer of the earth known as the earth's "heat engine" is the _____________.
What are the four Earth Spheres?
lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere
The layer of life on Earth
The water component of the Earth
The air component of the Earth
The lithosphere is fractured into _____________ or ________________.
tectonic plates; crustal plates
The longest mountain range in the world is a divergent tectonic boundary known as the ______________.
Forming a continuous belt nearly 40,000 miles around the globe, the ____________ consists of a layer upon what was once molten rock that has been fractured and lifted.
oceanic ridge system
The arc of intense seismic activity containing 75% of the world's active volcanoes located along the borders of the Pacific Plate is the _____________.
Ring of Fire
The gently sloping platform of continental material along most coasts is known as the ___________.
Zones where plates move together, causing one to go beneath the other, as when oceanic crust is involved, or where plates collide when leading edges are made of continental crust
Zones where plates move apart, leaving a gap between them
Zones where plates slide past each other, scraping and deforming as they pass
Regions where oceanic lithosphere is being consumed as a result of convergent boundaries are called _____________.
________ originates when magma cools and solidifies.
After igneous rock is subjected to weathering, material is transported and deposited by erosion agents (running water, glaciers, wind, waves) it is converted into rock by lithification and produces ____________ rock.
After sedimentary rock is subjected to great pressure and heat from mountain building or being buried deep in the earth, it becomes ____________ rock.
The principle that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order and therefore each time period can be recognized by its fossil content is the principle of ________________.