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age-graded expectations

Views held within societies about what would be appropriate behavior at a given time in life.

agency

Viewing the self as the originator of action.

appraisal of the situation

In coping, an estimate of the nature, quality, and importance of the stressors in a situation.

central process

The dominant context or mechanism through which the psychosocial crisis is resolved.

communion

The commitment to and consideration for the well-being of others.

contexts of development

The interrelated conditions in which development occurs.

core pathologies

Destructive forces that result from severe, negative resolutions of the psychosocial crises.

developmental stage

A period of life dominated by a particular quality of thinking or a particular mode of social relationships. The notion of stages suggests qualitative changes in competence at each phase of development.

developmental tasks

Skills and competencies that are acquired at each stage of development.

early adolescence

The period of psychosocial development that begins with the onset of puberty and ends around 18 years of age, usually with graduation from high school.

epigenetic principle

A biological plan for growth such that each function emerges in a systematic sequence until the fully functioning organism has developed.

ethnic subculture

The cultural values and behavioral patterns characteristic of a particular group in a society that shares a common ancestry; memories of a shared historical past; and a cultural focus on symbolic elements that distinguish the group from others.

experiment

A research method best suited for examining causal relationships, in which some variable or group of variables is systematically manipulated to examine its effect on an outcome.

later adolescence

The period of psychosocial development that begins around the time of graduation from high school and ends in the early 20s.

prime adaptive ego qualities

Mental states that form a basic orientation toward the interpretation of life experiences; new ego qualities emerge in the positive resolution of each psychosocial crisis.

psychosocial crisis

A predictable life tension that arises as people experience some conflict between their own competencies and the expectations of their society.

psychosocial evolution

The contribution of each generation to the knowledge and norms of society.

psychosocial theory

A theory of psychological development that proposes that cognitive, emotional, and social growth are the result of the interaction between social expectations at each life stage and the competencies that people bring to each life challenge.

radius of significant relationships

The groups of important people in one's life. The breadth and complexity of these groups change over the which each member of the population under investigation has an equal chance of being included.

range of applicability

The nature of the concepts and principles that a theory is trying to explain.

sensitive period

A span of time during which a particular skill or behavior is most likely to develop.

teachable moment

A time when a person is most ready to acquire a new ability.

theory

A logically interrelated system of concepts and statements that provides a framework for organizing, interpreting, and understanding observations, with the goal of explaining and predicting behavior.

A ________ is a logical system of concepts that provides a framework for organizing and interpreting observations.

a. theory

Which of the following is considered the age range conceptualized by psychosocial theory?

d. the entire life span

Which of the following statements is considered an assumption of psychosocial theory?

b. At every stage of life, individuals may contribute to their own development.

The stage theory concept:

a. proposes a specific direction of development.

Which of the following statements about psychosocial stages is most accurate?

b. The way one perceives and experiences life varies qualitatively from stage to stage.

Which of the following is the best definition of developmental tasks?

d. Skills and competencies that contribute to increased mastery.

Which of the following statements is most accurate pertaining to the concept of psychosocial crisis?

c. Most people resolve the crisis positively with some negative experience.

The central process in psychosocial theory refers to:

c. how a person resolves a psychosocial crisis.

The key function of the radius of significant relationships is to:

b. recognize the demands of society brought to bear on the individual.

Coping is an important concept in psychosocial theory because:

c. it explains how unique and inventive behaviors occur.

11. ________ develop from the positive resolution of the psychosocial crisis, and ________ develop from the negative resolution of the psychosocial crisis.

b. Prime adaptive ego qualities; core pathologies

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