BMS 208

Created by harwoomi 

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exam 1

anatomy

cut open, study of structure

physiology

study of function

ancient egypt/mummification

began 2,600 bce. Basic knowledge of organ placement, removal, body preservation

Cyrus the Great

559-530 BCE; criminals used for dissection and medical research

Hippocrates

(460-337 BCE), 'First' anatomist and "father" of medicine
• Attributed diseases to natural causes (not religious)

aristotle

384-322 BCE, Understanding of form from dissection of comparative species
Misunderstanding of function of the organ systems (heart as furnace, brain and lungs as A/C, vessels contain air)

Herophilis

(335-280 BCE), • Vivisectionist movement
First link of brain to intelligence
First to compare human and animal's bodies

galen

130-201 AD, Prominent 'human' anatomist with 150 known writings.
• Held as the authority for 1300 years
Promoted concept of the four bodily humors
"Prince of Physicians"
Stressed importance of experimentation in medicine.

choleric

yellow bile

melancholics

black bile

sanguinious

blood

choleric

yellow bile

holy quran

human embryogenesis - organs of hearing, eye and brain

Islamic conquest of Persia

holy quran, •Scholars dissected humans and animals
•Human Anatomy as a gage of intelligence

rhazes

applied neuroanatomy, praised and rejected Galen's work.

Avicenna

The Canon of Medicine ~1020 AD. the void between Galen and Vesalius

tusi

Observation of anatomical
structures; ideas of human evolution, heredity, and variation

Renaissance

1300's - 1500's, Change driven first by artists, not by the medical community

Andreas Vesalius

Italian artist and anatomist
• Founder of the science of anatomy
• Provoked other anatomists against galen and for human cadaver dissections
First to articulate skeletons for display in medical schools
His findings and dissections helped correct misconceptions that had existed for 2000 years

William Harvey

Like Vesalius, challenged Galen's views
• Dispelled Aristotelian idea of blood vessels containing air
Accurately described the circular, direction flow of blood and the actions of the heart
established the basis for modern embryology

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

• Dutch scientist/optical engineer
• Invented (relatively) powerful microscope
• Allowed for first clear views of cells and cell structures

Warburton Anatomy Act

1832, medical schools not allowed to dig up dead body graves

M.J. Schleiden and Theodor Schwaan

"All living things are composed of cells"
• Five Tenets of Cells:
• Building blocks of all plants and animals
• Produced by division of other cells
• Smallest units that perform all functions
• Maintain homeostasis as a cell.
• Homeostasis above the cell level reflects actions of multiple cells

William Roentgen (and Bertha)

• Discovered rays that could penetrate most materials
• 'X' for the unknown
Bertha's hand

anterior

in front of

posterior

in back of

ventral

at the belly side of human body

dorsal

at the back side

superior

toward the head

inferior

toward the feet

cranial

at the head

caudal

at the feet

medial

toward midline of body

lateral

away from midline of body

deep

on the inside

superficial

on the outside

proximal

closest to the point of attachment

distal

furthest from the point of attachment

axial region

head, neck, trunk

appendicular

all else

parietal layer

lines inside of organs

visceral

external surface of organs

transverse plane

cuts perp.

frontal plane

cuts into front and back halfs

sagittal plane

cuts into left and right halfs

chemical level

atoms and molecules

water molecules

vitamins

macromolecules

dna, proteins

cellular level

first level to maintain homeostasis, made up of cells

tissue level

group of cells with common function

epithelial tissue

covers surfaces, lines body cavity and organs

connective tissue

bones, fat, supports bone, blood, and cartilage

muscle

produces movement, smooth, cardiac, skeletal

nervous

conducts nerve impulses for communication

integumentary

skin, hair, protection

skeletal

bones, support, protection and movement, stores calcium and phosphorus, provides site for muscle attatchements

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