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Organic Molecule

A molecule that is normally found in or produced by living systems

Monosaccharide

One sugar molecule. Glucose, fructose, and galactose

Disaccharide

Two sugar molecules. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose

Polysaccharides

Have a lot of sugar molecules. Starch, glycogen, cellulose

Molecular formula for glucose

C6H12O6

Alpha glucose

-OH group that points downwards away from the ring

Beta glucose

-OH group on carbon 1 is above the ring

The disaccharide produced in a reaction between two alpha glucose molecules

Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

The name of the link (bond) found between two alpha glucose molecules

Glycosidic bond

Polysaccharide starch exists in two different structural forms

Amylose and Amylopectin

Amylose

...

Amylopectin

...

Glucose

Monosaccharide, fuel or energy source

Galactose

Monosaccharide, energy source

Fructose

Monosaccharide, energy source, fruit sugar

Sucrose

Disaccharide, glucose and fructose, energy source, table sugar

Lactose

Disaccharide, glucose and galactose, energy source, milk sugar

Maltose

Disaccharide, digests starch, malt sugar, glucose and glucose

Starch

Polysaccharide, energy source, insoluble storage or carbohydrates (Plants)

Glycogen

Polysaccharide, energy source, short term, made in muscles and liver (Animals)

Cellulose

Polysaccharide, support and protect plants in cell walls, insoluble

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