5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Mature Sperm
- Inferior hypogastric plexus
- Clinical Note: Erectile Dysfunction
- Clinical Correlation: Varicocele
- a Any disorder or behavior that impedes blood flow will cause erectile dysfunction
Diabetes, hypertension and smoking.
Low serum testosterone will affect erection.
If parasympathetics are intact, sildenafil citrate (Viagra), enhances relaxing effect of NO by inhibiting phosphodiesterase, which degrades cGMP.
- b varicosities of pampiniform plexus
- c Chief autonomic plexus of pelvis
Formed by the hypogastric and pelvic splanchnic nerves
Sympathetic efferents and afferents
- d Parasympathetic, S2,S3, S4 initiates erection by relaxing trabecular smooth muscle and allowing dilation of the helicine arteries with the corpora cavernosa.
Relaxation involve acetylcholine and nitric oxide (NO).
NO activates guanylate cyclase causing smooth muscle cells to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) that relaxes smooth muscle.
Engorgement compresses veins again non-distensible tunica albuginea, corporal venous occlusive mechanism.
Sympathetic terminates erection by constricting both trabecular smooth muscle and helicine arteries.
- e Newly released sperm are non-motile
Acquire motility in the epididymis.
Occurs in female reproductive system
Removal and replacement of glycocalyx components.
Release of acrosomal enzymes to penetrate zona pellucida
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- AKA supporting or sustentacular cells.
Postmitotic, never divide after puberty.
Columnar cells with extensive apical and lateral specializations.
Euchromatic nucleus with prominent nucleolus
Very active cells
Form unusual cell-cell junctions with exceedingly tight junction.
Junctional complexes divide seminiferous tubule epithelium into basal and luminal compartments.
Form the blood-testis barrier.
Synthesize and secrete androgen binding protein (ABP) under the influence of FSH.
Can convert testosterone to estradiol.
Synthesize and secrete inhibin, which inhibits FSH secretion.
- Epididymal lining is pseudostratified with stereocilia.
- Primary spermatocytes undergo 2 meiotic divisions to produce haploid spermatids
Type B spermatogonia divide by mitotic division to give rise to primary spermatocytes.
Primary spermatocytes replicate their DNA before beginning meiosis and therefore have 4n chromosomes, twice normal.
Meiotic division results in haploid, 22 chromosomes and X or Y.
Cells derived from 1st meiotic division called secondary spermatocytes. They cannot be seen in sections because they immediately enter the 2nd meiotic division.
- S2,3,4 keeps it off the floor
- Process by which spermatogonia become mature sperm.
5 True/False Questions
Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Anastamoses → Prostate cancer (from the peripheral section) spreads to the vertebral column via anastomoses between the prostatic venous plexus and the internal vertebral (Batson's) plexus.
Ductus deferens (muscular layers) → Epithelium is pseudostratified columnar with stereocilia.
Spermatogonial phase → Spermatogonia give rise to primary spermatocytes
Stem cells divide to replace themselves and give rise to committed spermatogonia.
Dark type A -stem cells - self renewing population
Pale type A - committed - divide to increase their number
Type B - differentiated type A cells
Ductus deferens (Epithelium) → Epithelium is pseudostratified columnar with stereocilia.
Clinical Correlation: Infertility → Factors affecting fertility
Elevated testicular temperature
Steroids (anabolic steroid abuse)
Toxins, e.g. pesticides