English poet and dramatist; considered one of the greatest English writers. Wrote poetry and 38 dramas (tragic and comedies)
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for his 'Don Quixote.'
Written by Cervantes, it was considered one of the most influential Spanish works of literature. The story satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form.
Influenced by the Italian Renaissance, characterized by oil paints, emotional scenes, preoccupations with death, and detail. Northern Renaissance Art.
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and pioneered modern techniques of oil painting. Perfected oil painting, wood panel paintings (religious symbolism), and had great detail in his works.
A surrealist painter of the Netherlands who focused his works on symbolism, fantasy, confusion, death and the torments of Hell. Most famous work = "Death and the Miser" (1490)
Pieter (Peter) Brueghel the Elder
A painter and print-maker who was isolated from Italian influences and usually painted ordinary scenes like villages and peasants (genre scenes).
German artist who visited Italy in the late 1400s. He was the foremost Northern Renaissance artist, and specialized in the woodcut technique. He mastered proportions, perspective, realism, and modeling. Painted numerous self-portraits.
Hans Holbein the Younger
German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings, and painted for Erasmus, More, and King Henry VIII.
Famous work = "The Ambassadors" (1533), which portrayed the major themes of the era, including exploration, religious discord, preoccupation with death, and the rising tide of international relations in an age of expansion.
German Family (esp. Jacob Fugger, 1459-1525) that was significant in patronizing art of the Northern Renaissance. Their fortune was the result of international banking, which was similar to the Medici family in Florence.
Christine de Pisan
A wealthy woman who chronicled the accomplishments of great women of history. Wrote the Renaissance's woman's survival manual ('The City of Ladies,' 1405), was extremely well-educated in France, and was possibly Europe's first feminist.
"First Lady" of the Renaissance, set an example for women to break away from their traditional roles as mere ornaments to their husbands, was a big patron of the arts, founded a school for young women, and wrote over 2000 letters that provided a window into politics and courtly life at that time.
Considered a Baroque painter, she was perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the Post-Renaissance era. Was the first woman to paint historical and religious scenes, and was famous for her "Judith" paintings (not normal, since most female artists at this time were largely consigned to portrait painting and imitative poses). Influenced by Caravaggio.
1. Greatest painter of the Venetian school
2. Use of vivid color and movement, in contrast to more
subtle colors and static figures of the Florentine style
a. Reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance,
symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color
· High Renaissance had taken art to perfection;
there was little that could be done to improve it;
thus, mannerists rebelled against it
b. Works often used unnatural colors while shapes
were elongated or otherwise exaggerated
2. Tintoretto (1518-94)
a. Venetian painter
b. Used elongated figure proportions, twisted poses,
and compression of space
a. Greek artist who did most of his greatest work in
b. Perhaps the greatest of the Mannerists with his use
of elongated figures and unnatural pigments
c. Burial of Count Orgaz (1586-88) and Toledo (1597)
are two important examples of his work
1. Emphasis on early Church writings that provided
answers on how to improve society and reform the
a. Less emphasis on pagan works from ancient Greece
and Rome (although these works were widely read
and enjoyed by Christian Humanists)
b. Many historians today see more continuity between
the Northern and Italian Renaissance than
2. Drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and the
writings of the Church Fathers.
3. Emphasized education and power of human intellect to
bring about institutional change and moral
4. Writings led to criticism of the church thus leading to
1. Most famous and celebrated of all northern humanists
2. Master of the Greek language; one of Europe's
3. Made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions
of the New Testament to create 'purer' editions.
4. He was the first humanist to earn a living by
In Praise of Folly
a. Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550)
· Written in Latin; thus is was not intended for
b. Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to
reform the Church, not destroy it.
c. Satirized people's worldly ambitions, including the
d. Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church
leaders and the clergy
e. The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and
influenced Martin Luther.
· Thus, some contemporaries claimed that
"Erasmus lay the egg that Luther hatched"
regarding the reformation
1. Prime example of a civic humanist; he rose to the
highest government position of any humanist
· Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII in England
(1516): More's humanistic masterpiece
a. Mixes civic humanism with religious ideals to
describe a perfect (utopian) society located on an
b. More sees the accumulation of property as a root
cause for society's ills; a few have it—most don't
c. In order to achieve harmony and order people have
to be willing to sacrifice their individual rights for
the common good.
d. War, poverty, religious intolerance, and other
problems of the early 16th century do not exist.
Jacques Lefevre d'Etables
1. Leading French humanist and good example of how
Northern Christian humanists focused on early Church
2. Produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a
single authoritative version of the Bible.
· A devout Catholic, he was later seen as an enemy
of the Church and was condemned for heresy
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
1. Spanish humanist who reformed the Spanish clergy
and church so that many of the Church abuses that
were highlighted during the Reformation did not
necessarily apply to Spain
· Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition (serves
as an example of how not all humanists were
necessarily tolerant of heretical views).
2. Complutensian Polyglot Bible: Placed Hebrew, Greek,
and Latin versions of the Bible in parallel columns.
· Yet another example of how Northern humanists
focused on early Church writings and the accuracy
of Biblical translations.
1. His secular writings portrayed his confidence in human
nature and reflected Renaissance tastes
Gargantua and Pantagruel
a. A folk epic and comic masterpiece that satirized
b. Attacked clerical education and monastic orders;
championed secular learning
Michel de Montaigne
1. Developed the essay form
a. Doubt that true knowledge could be obtained
b. Believed that the skeptic must be cautious, critical
and suspend judgment.
c. Thus, one must be tolerant of others' views
· The essay became a vehicle for testing new ideas
Christian humanism + Erasmus + More + d'Etables + Cisneros + Rabelais + Montaigne + Shakespeare + Cervantes