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Advertising

Any form of non- personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.

Allowances

Monies which are permitted to be removed from payments to suppliers based on an agreed upon set of activities: markdowns.

Auxiliary Market

Supports the industry with outreach to the consumer with PR activities, Advertising, etc.

Balance of trade

Difference between the dollar value of imports and exports, Favorable when exported products exceed imported products in dollar value

Better Market (price zone)

Identification within the fashion industry of tiers by price and fashion forwardness. Tiers are as follows: budget, Mass, Better, Bridge, Designer

Bridge market (price zone)

Positioned to suit the target market which is prepared to pay above mass and better to obtain a product of quality, and style which suits them.

Budget Market

Market which targets consumers who are comfortable buying in the rise and culmination stages of the fashion cycle. Stores offer value and market price heavily. May be off-price, private label, national brands.

Chain stores

Centralized management of multiple stores: today may be the organization of large department stores, discount stores or specialty stores

Classic style

Endures through time

Consignment selling

"A supplier places goods in a store which he/she permits the unsold goods to be returned after an agreed upon period of time. This practice allows for complicated and/or expensive inventories to be offered to the consumer. Common in the Fur Industry. The inventory investment and expertise is beyond what most stores are prepared to manage. A way to offer the product without the investment and potential exposure to loss. "

Consumer

The end user of the product, the person for which it was designed

Contractor

The business which may act as the sewer and finisher of an order in which the design and marketing is done by another. Most suppliers used contractors, rather than own factories.

Converter

Business which buys greige goods and arranges for their dying and finishing, selling the product. This permits flexibility in the industry.

Cooperative advertisement

Financially supported by more than one source, usually manufacturing and retail though sometimes, textiles and retail

Cooperative Advertising

Usually involves 2 tiers of the industry sharing the expense of advertising. This can be the designer and the retailer, the textile producer and the designer or store.

Costing a garment

Includes key elements: the amount of fabric used, the amount of labor as determined by the kind and minutes of stiching required, the quality of the workmanship and the overhead of the manufacturer.

Department store

Retail store strategy which is geared to full service at mass and above markets. Largest: Macy's Inc.

Design

"The variation of a style which establishes its unique appeal. Given a ""style number"" which permits discussion of it as a particular version of a style. "

Designer

Person responsible for the creation of the designs which are appropriate for the businesses' target market. Offers national, designer and private label product.

Developing countries

El Salvador, Honduras, China, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, sub-Saharan African countries in the stage of expanding their GDP and production of fashion product

Discount store

Retail store strategy which is geared to limited or technologically supported service at mass markets. Offers national and private label product. Ex: Largest today: Wal-Mart, Target

Divisional Merchandise Manager (DMM)

Person who has responsibility to train and supervise buyers who work cooperatively in related products. Goal is to manage the profitability of the group.

Downward flow

Direction in which fashion moves from upper market to mass.

Duty or Tariff

Tax accessed on product which enters a country. Protectionist of the product raising the price of the imports.

E-Commerce

Refers to the selling and buying of product electronically, via computer, or personal device

Evolution of Fashion

Theory which states the fashion changes gradually unless some unusual events occur.

Factory Outlet stores

One of a few organizations: designers opening retail outlets to which they sell at discount to retail at full mark-up, independent business organizations who own outlet malls and buy direct at discounts from manufacturers.

Fad

The pattern of sales which reflects a fast increase in demand, short-term culmination, followed by a quick decline

Fashion

A current version of a style which is adopted by the majority of the consumer group

Fashion Adoption theory

Direction that fashion movements are either downward, upward or horizontal

Fashion Cycle

The term which applies to the pattern of demand for a product. Begins with innovation, rise of demand, culmination and final decline in demand.

Fashion Forecaster

Responsible for the prediction of fashion, fabric and color direction for a targeted customer. May be employed in the textile, manufacturing and retail industries as well as auxiliary mkts.

Fashion Trend

The direction in which fashion is moving

Franchise

Parent company contracts with independent retailers for distribution. Parent name is used, supported by advertising, training for management, guidelines for business practices.

Free-trade agreement

Eliminates duties and encourages trade between its members. Some now in place: NAFTA, CAFTA

Furs

Pelts from animals either raised or hunted of which mink is the most popular

Garment pricing factors

Cost of fabric and trimmings, cost of labor and quality of make

Generic fiber names

Non-trade marked manufacturered fibers, Ex: Polyester, Rayon, Spandex, Nylon

General Merchandise Manager

Numerous MM's report to the GMM. Usually grouped by common product. May be as broad as soft goods vs. hard goods.

Gray market goods

Product which is sold in countries in which it is not indtended to be sold, thus invalidating the warranty.

Greige goods

Textiles which have not yet been finished.

Horizontal flow

The direction in which fashion movement is within groups on similar social levels

Import quota

The amount of product within defined category groups which is allowed to be brought into a particular country. Ex. Shirts vs. jackets.

Imported products

Fulfills the legal specifications of product made outside of the US and brought into the US. Permits retailers to establish low labor pricing, exclusivity of product and contracting for product not available in the US market. Largest in units : China

Income definitions

Disposable is after taxes, discretionary is after necessities are paid from the disposable income.

Influencer

The person whose adoption of a style signals to followers that the style is desirable and appropriate for their own purchase. Important in the industry to arrange with these people to be publically observed in your fashion such as at the film awards.

Innovator

The person who is the early tester of styles

Jobbers

These middlemen rerpresent manufacturers to retailers by buying and selling product. They are also active within the textile industry and may buy odd-lots and sell to those who produce product, either manufacturers or retailers doing product development.

Knock-off

Adaptations. The industry practice of copying the dominant features of the styles from others. Styles are not protected by law in the US. Patterns can be adjusted to meet the legal definition of required difference. France protects against the copying of styles.

Licensing

Legal contract between a designer and a manufacturer to permit the manufacturer to produce and market product under the designer's name. The degree of collaboration is negotiated at the initiation of the contract. This has significantly supported growth within the Kids and Home Furnishing businesses.

Line

A collection or group of styles presented to the market for delivery at a specific time.

Market segmentation

The division of customers into groups who share specific attributes and product responses

Mass market

The largest grouping of consumers who are served by stores offering widely accepted fashion for the largest part of their inventory with a smaller presentation of fashion in the rising stage of the fashion cycle.

Men's Furnishings

Consists of neckwear, underwear, shirts, socks, etc.

Microfiber

A fiber produced to be 2 - 3 times smaller than a hair, lending flexibility and softness to the fabric.

Most Favored Nation

Expands international trade with speicfied countries through quota free status and and low tariffs

NAFTA

Trade agreement between the US, Canada and Mexico, eliminating quotas and tariffs.

New Look

Recognized as one of the non-evolutionary changes in the industry, the full skirt response to the limits imposed during WWII on textiles and the pent-up desire by women to dress in an overtly feminine style.

Off-price retailers

Market designer and branded merchandise at reduced prices. Ex: TJ Maxx, Marshalls, Symns (NE)

Off-shore production

The use of labor in developing countries for production of US bound product. This enables the supplier to achieve advantageous labor pricing to compete for US business.

Piece-dyed

The process of dying and finishing occurs after the fabric is created by knitting or weaving. Post-pones the necessity for the color decision and may provide more opportunity to respond to fashion trends.

Primary market

The resources for textiles, including the farms, mills, and finishers. Ex. DuPont, Invista

Protectionism

The limitation of imports for political and economic goals of the US government

Secondary Market

The part of the Fashion Industry which is composed of manufacturers, contractors

Specialty retailer

Offers a limited selection of products or a broad range to a limited market.

Specification buying

Product which is specified for make, cut or detailing by the store. Ex: specific fit requirements

Style

Characteristics or appearance of a garment which establishes it as different from other garments. Allows for variation in versions of the garment. Ex: trench coats

Stylist designer

Adapt an existing style to the price, quality and fashion needs of the particular customer of their employer. They are not the "originator" of the design.

Synthetic fiber

Chemically based and developed fiber of which the first was nylon

Target market

Refers to those who are part of a targeted, defined population who share in some or many shared characteristics which permit marketing of a product to the group which may be large or small.

Tertiary Market

The stores, e-commerce and other links between the creators of the product and the consumer

Textile Fairs

Intersroff, Premier Vision, Magic

The Fashion Group

Professional Association of executive men and women in the fashion industry

Trade deficit

when the value of goods that a country imports exceeds the value of its exports.

Trade Publications

Publications to a defined group ex: fashion industry. Samples: WWD, DNR, Footwear News, Store Magazine, Chain Store Age

Trade shows

Periodic merchandise exhibits stages in various regional trading areas around the country by groups of producers and their sales representatives for the specific purpose of making sales of their products to retailers in that area.

Vertical Integration

When a company buys a company from another level of the industry for example Secondary level manufacturer buys a retailer.

Warehouse Clubs

Combine low service, with bulk selling to offer low prices on apparel, electronics, house wares, pharmacy. Accessible to members both group and individuals. Ex: Sam's, Cosco

WWD

Widely known and read trade publication dedicated to the women's fashion industry

ISO Standards

Companies must have systems put in place to judge the quality of their product. European companies will not buy from a producer who is not certified.

Jobbers- Textiles

The middle who buy fabric and sell to manufacturers or retailers who will assign it to be used in garment production. Aids in supplying urgent needs for textiles.

Licensed trademark (fibers)

Used under a licensed agreement whereby use it is permitted only to those manufacturers who end products pass established tests for their specific end use or application.

Mills (Fabric)

Producers of textiles. Due to increased international product sourcing, mills have re-directed their business in the US to service industrial and household goods. The price competition abroad as well as the availability close to the labor sources has supported this change. Additionally, international acquisitions have made this business that of conglomerates. US Mills still in existence: Burlington Industries, Galey and Lord. US mills have expanded abroad to follow production sources.

Textile Converter

Those who buys greige goods and arrange for their dying and finishing, selling the product. This permits flexibility in the industry for responses to the most recent trends in color and fabric or finishing of fabric.

Textile Finishing

This may involve any steps which prepare the fabric for use. They include waterproofing, fire-retardation, UVA protection, surface treatment as seen in denim, etc.

Trade/Branded Textile Names

Refers to a specific manufactured fiber, which is a modification, a variant, of an existing generic fiber and which has been registered with the government as a particular brand and whose distribution and use is controlled by the manufacturer. For example, Spandex can be used by any company which makes the fiber but Lycra (a confined formula of Lycra) can only be used by the company which created and registered it. Other generic fibers: Acetate, Acrylic, Nylon, Olefin, Polyester, Dacron, Rayon, Spandex, Aramid, Lyocell, Sulfar PBI. Because of the larger amount of money dedicated to educating the consumer about these branded fibers, they develop an appeal which is helpful to retail selling. Cooperative advertising dollars can support both the fiber and the retailer purchasing the fiber within the garments advertised.

Yarn Dyed

Refers to dyeing before woven or knitted: this process results in deep, rich colors, requires longer lead time to produce.

Fur Labeling Act

Requires: English name of the animal, Country of origin, Type of processing, including dyeing, Source of parts

Leased Department

A department which appears to be part of the store but is run by an outsider who pays a percentage of sales to the store as rent. This practice is somewhat common in the Fur Industry as well as shoe and designer items. The inventory investment and expertise can then provide additional product assortment for the store without the risk of profit loss.

807 and 807A

Preferential access of goods that originate or are partly manufactured in the US and are assembled abroad. Duty will be owed on the value added abroad.

Bootleg Goods

Supplied by those who make the "real" product but to the black market.

Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)

Trade pact grants improved access to Central American market for US made goods, intended to strengthen poor countries. Allows producers in Central America to make apparel with Mexican material and still get duty-free access to the US Market.

Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA)

Grants Nafta -like treatment of footwear from eligible Caribbean and Central American countries.

Global Sourcing

Shopping for and purchasing of goods which are then imported into the US. Reasons for going global: labor availability vs. US, Price advantage, uniqueness of product from select countries, opportunity for exclusivity. China is the largest supplier of imported goods. Retailers are now the largest importers of goods due to product development requirements.

Absolute Quota

Either global or for a defined supplier, passes by the president of legislation, limit the quantity of goods as measure in SMEs (square meter equivalents) of textile fabric during the quota year.

Tariff-rate Quota

A set limit after which a higher duty is charged on goods entering the country.

Trade Surplus

When the value of a country's exports exceed its imports

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Establishes trade agreements among it's members to meet the international needs of the global economy. Debate exists about the measures employed to benefit developed nations over underdeveloped nations.

Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production (WRAP)

Voluntary standards for working conditions in factories where US apparel industry does business: Max of 60 hour work weeks including overtime, one day off per week, pay meeting or exceeding the minimum wage of the country, hiring at 15 or 14 if country hires , prison labor or other forced labor not permitted, protection from abuse, right to form unions and bargain collectively. Monitored for compliance by apparel companies and independent observers.

Fiber

A threadlike unit of raw material from which yarn and eventually textile fabric is made. Fibers are either Natural (Wool Silk, Flax, Ramie, Hemp) or Manufactured also called synthetic (Rayon 1910 first to be made), Acetate, Nylon (#2 used), Acrylic, Polyester (#1 amongst others in use today), Triacetate, Spandex, Polyloefin, Lyocell, Polyatide. Manufactured fibers must advertise the attributes of their product in order to compete versus natural fibers which are already understood by the consumer as well as their competitors who have developed competing products with similar attributes. Together the synthetic or manufactured fiber industry outspends the natural fiber industry explaining their products. The natural fiber industry now advertises directly to consumers to inform them of the new directions within their industry to create more interest. Example: hemp as antibacterial, etc.

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