anatomy 1

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abdominal cavity

the cavity containing the major viscera

accessory organs

organs that food does not pass through and produce enzymes for digestion

alimentary canal

digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus

amniotic sac

a fluid-filled sac that cushions and protects a developing embryo and fetus in the uterus

amylase

enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches

anatomical position

erect, feet forward, arms at side with palms facing forward, head facing forward

anterior

of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body

anus

excretory opening at the end of the alimentary canal

ascending colon

the part of the large intestine that ascends from the cecum to the transverse colon

bile

a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder

blastocyte

an undifferentiated embryonic cell

blastula

early stage of an embryo produced by cleavage of an ovum

caudal

(of quadrupeds) situated in or directed toward the part of the body from which the tail arises

cell

(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

chemical digestion

the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical buiding blocks

cleavage

(embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum

cloaca

a muscular cavity at the end of the large intestine through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave the body

coelum

fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm

colon

the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum

coronal

divides the body into front and back

cranial

of or relating to the cranium which encloses the brain

crop

a pouch in many birds and some lower animals that resembles a stomach for storage and preliminary maceration of food

deep

having great spatial extension or penetration downward or inward from an outer surface or backward or laterally or outward from a center

descending colon

the part of the large intestine that descends from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon

development

(biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically

diaphragm

(anatomy) a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities

differentiation

(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function

distal

situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone

dorsal

belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part

dorsal cavity

one long, continuous cavity located on the back of the body

duodenum

the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum

ectoderm

the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue

egg

animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes

embryo

an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life

endoderm

the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems

esophagus

the passage between the pharynx and the stomach

fallopian tube

either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus

female

an animal that produces gametes (ova) that can be fertilized by male gametes (spermatozoa)

fertilization

creation by the physical union of male and female gametes

fetus

an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal

gall bladder

stores bile

gametes

sex cells

gastrulation

the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells

gizzard

thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food

growth

(biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically

homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Ileum

the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum

inferior

lower than a given reference point

jejunum

the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum

large intestine

beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum

lateral

lying away from the median and sagittal plane of a body

lipase

an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream

liver

large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity

male

an animal that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that can fertilize female gametes (ova)

mechanical digestion

Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food

medial

relating to or situated in or extending toward the middle

mesentry

membrane that holds small intestine to abdominal wall

mesoderm

the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue

microvilli

projections that increase the cell's surface area

morula

a solid mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits

mouth

the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge

movement

a natural event that involves a change in the position or location of something

neurulation

development of the nervous system

organ

a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function

organogenesis

The stage of human development during which the organs are formed. Organogenesis begins after gastrulation and is completed by the eight week of gestation.

pancreas

a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach

Parietal

of or relating to or associated with the parietal bones in the cranium

pelvic cavity

the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera

pericardial

located around the heart or relating to or affecting the pericardium

pericardium

a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

peritoneal

of or relating to or affecting the peritoneum

peritoneum

a transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera

pharynx

the passage to the stomach and lungs

placenta

the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus

pleura

the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest

pleural

of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax

pleuroperitoneal

a term denoting the pleural and peritoneal serous membranes or the cavities they line

posterior

at or near the hind end in quadrupeds or toward the spine in primates

primitive streak

a structure that forms during the early stages of development and is the structure that will establish bilateral symmetry, determine the site of gastrulation and initiate germ layer formation

protease

any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis

proximal

situated nearest to point of attachment or origin

rectum

the terminal section of the alimentary canal

reproduction

the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring

sagittal

located in a plane that is parallel to the central plane of the sagittal suture

salivary glands

three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands

serosa

a thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the body

small intestine

the longest part of the alimentary canal

sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

chemical compound released by the pancreas into the small intestine which neutralizes the acidity of the chyme

sperm

the male reproductive cell

superficial

involving a surface only

superior

above

teeth

the kind and number and arrangement of teeth (collectively) in a person or animal

thoracic cavity

the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart

tissue

a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function

tongue

a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity

transverse

extending or lying across

transverse colon

the part of the large intestine that extends across the abdominal cavity and joins the ascending to the descending colon

uterus

a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females

ventral

nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism

villi

tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine

visceral

relating to or affecting the viscera

yolk

nutritive material of an ovum stored for the nutrition of an embryo (especially the yellow mass of a bird or reptile egg)

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