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Thomas Malthus

one of the first to argue that the world's rate or population increase was far outrunning the development of food supplies. His views remain influential today.

Neo-Malthusians

a group of people who argue that two characteristics of recent population growth made Malthus's thesis more frightening than when it was first written more then 200 years ago. 1- poor countries with rapid population growth. 2- population growth outstripping a wide variety of resources.

Epidemiological Transition

comes from the term epidemiology which is the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people. It focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.

ET—Stage 1

The stage of pestilence and famine. During this time the black plague occurred. It spread all over europe and China and killed more then 38 million people total.

ET—Stage 2

Another pandemic occurred, Cholera. Although the Industrial Revolution improved medicine, this disease killed 1/8 of population in Cario and half a million people in NYC. Was fixed when water and sewer systems were implemented in the late 19th century.

ET—Stage 3

The stage of degeneration and human-created diseases, characterized by a decrease in deaths from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders associated with aging. Examples - cardiovascular diseases like hear attacks and various forms of cancer. Decline in infectious diseases

ET—Stage 4

(S. Jay Olshansky and Brian Alut)The stage of delayed generative disease. Major degenerative cause of death, cardiovascular and cancers-linger. LIfe expectancy was extended thought due to medical advanced.

ET—Stage 5

three reasons to merge into stage ____: 1- evolution of diseases and new drugs/antibiotics. 2- continued epidemics is poverty (ex. US controlling TB but LDC dying). 3- The reemergence of epidemics is improved travel (ex. Airplanes because now people aren't restricted to one area but instead are widespread and the diseases will follow)

Black Plague

Also known as the bubonic plauge, which was probably transmitted to humans by fleas migrating from infected rats was history's most violent epidemic (stage one).

Cholera

A disease that is unknown in rural areas and became an especially virilent epidemic in urban areas during the industrial revolution. had a million died in NYC in 1832. (Stage 2)

Pandemic

a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects an exceptionally high proportion of the population.

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 20 million people have died. Most lethal epidemic in recent years.

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