Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

2nd Class

Deep Fascia

This is the outermost connective tissue part of the muscle.

Epimysium

This is the outside layer surrounding skeletal muscle, while surrounding the collection of muscle fibers called fascicles.

Fasicles

What are bundles of skeletal muscle fibers called?

Skeletal Muscle

This has multinucleated cells (more than one nucleus). One muscle cell is made up by many fibrils. Each myofibril is composed of myofilaments (filaments). What kind of muscle is this (skeletal / smoothe / cardiac)?

Sarcolemma

This is the muscle fiber of a cell membrane (inside a muscle cell. Glycogen is inside, along with mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, etc., etc. There are openings in the sarcolemma (invaginations) knows as a "T" tubule.

Myoglobin

Oxygen-binding protein found in the sarcoplasm.

T Tubule

This is an invagination in the sarcoplasm.

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

This is wrapped around the myofibril (channels). the widened areas are called the terminal cisterns. Name it.

Calcium

What is stored in the terminal cisterns?

Binding

Are actin and myosin binding or regulatory proteins?

Regulatory

Are troponin and tropomycin regulatory or binding proteins?

Thin Filaments

_________filaments are made up by these (3) proteins: actin, tropomyocin and troponin.

Tropomycin

This protein blocks myocin from the binding site at rest. Name it.

Troponin

This protein loves calcium and when it binds it moves tropomycin away and exposes the binding site. Name this protein.

Thick Filaments

______filaments are made up of myosin molecules (proteins). They look like golf clubs that are twisted. They also have ATP binding sites and myosin heads or cross bridges. Name these kinds of filaments.

sarcomeres

These are repeating patterns down a muscle.

Z Discs

These are the "bookends" of a sarcomere that anchor to proteins. Name it.

I Band

This is part of the microfibril after the Z Disc where there is no thick filament. Name this band:

M Line

This is the name for the center line that holds myosin together in a sarcomere. Name it.

Thin

_______filaments must slide over thick in order to make the muscle contract.

sarcolemma / T / sarcoplasmic reticulum

Nerve stimulation from motor neuron must take place via ACH (acetylcholine) to be released from end of neuron to transmit action potential to the _________. Once the action potential is depolarized, it has to travel down the______tubule (which contacts the terminal cistern) or sarcoplasmic reticulum to open calcium channels in the ______________ (terminal cluster) that are in the cell membrane. The calcium is released (floods it) into the sarcoplasm.

Rigor Mortis

When no ATP is available to disengage the myosin and actin, this causes what condition (seen after death).

ATP Production

These (3) sources for this process are: Creatinine Phosphate, 2) glycolysis (anaerobic) or 3) Krebs Cycle and oxidative phosphorlation. Name the process.

Creatinine Phosphate

This way to produce ATP combines CP + ADP = ATP + Creatinine. It is already in the muscle cell, and can donate a phosphate to make ATP. It gets used up quickly and can be sublimented. Name it.

Glycolysis

This process of ATP production is aerobic (no oxygen needed). It turns glucose into pyruvic acid to oxidize glucose. This process does not make a lot of ATP, although it is made quickly. Pyruvic acid converts to glucose and lactic acid from too much glucose (goes to the blood, then the liver, and produces either glucose or lactic acid. Name this process.

Krebs Cycle

This process of ATP production happens when a lot of oxygen is being brought in, a lot of ATP is made via the e-transport chain. Name this process.

Isometric Contraction

This type of contraction means "same length" and engages the muscle(s) to create tone. The myosin head engages actin and doesn't shorten the sarcomere. This is not the optimal way to build muscle.

Isotonic Contraction

This type of contraction means "same tone." The contraction can either be "concentric" or "Eccentric." Name it.

Concentric

This type of contraction under isotonic contraction shortens the muscle and is the optimal way to increase strength.

Esscentric

This type of contraction under isotonic contraction lengthens contraction (i.e. - sitting slowly). Flexion will pull apart the muscle. Name it.

Slow Oxidative

These muscles are a group type of skeletal muscle fibers t.hat are the thinnest with least amount of myofibrils in it. They are endurance fibers (AKA - red fibers that have a lot of myoglobin that binds the oxygen). They engage slowly. Name them.

Fast Glycolytic

These muscles are a group type of skeletal muscle fiber that hydrolizes ATP faster. They are the largest muscle fibers in the body (like those used by sprinters). Name them.

Fast-Oxidative Glycolytic

These muscles are a group type of skeletal muscle between the (2) slow oxidative and (2) fast glycolytic. Name it.

Smooth Muscle

This type of muscles or muscle group is found in any organ or structure in the body that has something moving through it. Hormones also go to this system (sympathetic and para sympathetic) and have more nerve fibers that go to this group. Hormones also go there for contraction or relaxation. Name it.

Single Unit Smooth Muscle

This is the most common smooth muscle. The whole muscle responds to stimulation asa single unit. They are either spindle or squamous shaped. Gap junctions (made of proteins) allow the stimulations to stimulate travel from one muscle cell to another. If you stretch the organ, it will want to contract in a single unit smooth muscle. Name this group of muscles.

Multi-Units Smooth Muscle

These muscle groups have NO gap junctions. Each cell responds independently and the muscles behave as multiple units. They are richly innervated by branches of the autonomic nervous system.

Stress Relaxation Response of Smooth Muscle

When this type of muscle stretches, there is tension. At a certain point, it then relaxes (i.e. - like the stomach accomodating more food. Name this process.

Smooth Muscle

This filaments are attached to dense bodies. Intermediate bodies connect dense bodies. Thin filaments in smooth muscle don't have troponin. The mechanism of muscle contraction is induced by a significant amount of calcium found in the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic reticulum through the extracellular space via calcium channels (integral proteins) via hormones or autonomic nervous system. Name if this is the anatomy of smooth or skeletal muscle.

Camodulin

This is a protein in cytoplasm that has a high affinity for calcium. A calcium / calmodulin complex is found in smooth muscle. It activates an enzyme called "myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)" and phosphorylates the myosin head (adding a phosphate to the myosin head). It then binds ADP to make ATP to engage, power strike, and disengage. Myosin light chain phosphotase becomes active as calcium decrease, and it de-phosphorlates the myosin head. Name this protein.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set