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Amomoeans

From the Greek word "anhomoios", meaning dissimilar, this sect of Arianism stressed an essential difference between the Father and Son in the Trinity.

Anathema

A cursed, detested person.

Antioch

The first community that included both Jewish and Gentile followers of Jesus was established in this city.

Apocrypha

14 books of the Old Testament included in the Vulgate (except for II Esdras) but omitted in Jewish and Protestant versions of the Bible.

Apollinarianism

False belief that said although Jesus had a human body, he had no human soul.

Apostles' Creed

Statement of belief of the Church.

Arianism

Early teaching of the church that was heretical by saying that Jesus was not God, but created by God.

Athanasian Creed

A statement of faith that the church still affirms whose author is not known.

Caesaropapism

The doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters.

Canon

A collection of books accepted as holy scripture especially the books of the Bible recognized by any Christian church as genuine and inspired.

Chrysostom

"Golden-mouthed"

Church Fathers

Church teachers and writers of the early centuries whose teachings are a witness ton the Tradition of the Church.

Council of Nicaea

Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons.

Demiurge

Gnostic creator; god of the material world.

Deuterocanonical

Those books and passages of the Old and New Testaments about which there was controversy in early Christian history.

Diocesan Council

Council brought together by the diocesan.

Doctor of the Church

(Roman Catholic Church) a title conferred on 33 saints who distinguished themselves through the othodoxy of their theological teaching.

Dokesis

Greek word for appearance. Referred to heresy which claimed Jesus only appeared to die on the Cross.

Donatism

This heresy taught that sacraments are invalid if the minister is impure.

Ecumenical Council

A worldwide meeting of all bishops to deal with Churchh matters and problems.

Filioque

"And from the Son."

Formal Heresy

To freely choose with full understanding of the teaching of the Church, to hold to tenets or doctrines that are clearly contradictory to those of the Church.

Gnosticism

A religious orientation advocating gnosis as the way to release a person's spiritual element.

Gregory " The Illuminator"

Brought Christianity to the Armenian people.

Heresy

A belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion.

Imprimatur

Formal and explicit approval.

Infallible

Free from error; absolutely dependable.

Logos

The divine Word of God.

The divine Word of God.

Formed with a combination of Christianity, Zoroastriaism, Buddhism, and Judism. Lived an Ascetic lifestyle.

Marcionism

The Christian heresy of the 2nd and 3rd centuries that rejected the Old Testament and denied the incornation of God in Jesus as a human.

Material Heresy

Putting objects before God.

Monophysitism

Heresy claiming that there is only one nature in Christ and that His human nature is "incorporated" into the Divine Nature.

Monothelitism

The belief that the Son was one person with two natures, but that the person of Jesus only had a divine will and lacked a human will.

Montanism

Believed world about to end; denied forgiveness of sins and the need for material goods.

Neo-Platonism

A system of philosophical and religious doctrines composed of elements of Platonism, Aristotelianism, and oriental mysticism.

Nestorianism

The theological doctrine (named after Nestorius) that Christ is both the son of God and the man Jesus (which is opposed to Roman Catholic doctrine that Christ is fully God).

Nicene Creed

The most widely-accepted statement of Christian faith; the Nicene Creed was first adopted at the Council of Nicaea in A.D. 325.

Pelagianism

Believed you don't need God's grace.

Pope St. Leo "the Great"

An extrodinary shepard in the Catholic Church.

St. Ambrose of Milan

Son of Roman Prefect of Gaul.

St. Augustine of Hippo

Defined sacrament as: a visible sign of an invisable reality, a visible sign of invisible grace.

St. Basil the Great

Was a Bishop and looms of eastern Christianity.

St. Gregory of Nazianzus

His writings and teachings earned him the name "the Theologian."

St. Gregory of Nyssa

Younger brother of St. Basil forced into exile by the Arian emperor, Valens.

St. Hilary of Poitiers

A preacher; "Athanasius of the West."

St. Jerome

Translated the Bible into Latin.

Theodosius I

Made Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire in 380 AD.

Theotokos

"Mother of God"

Vulgate

Latin edition of the Bible translated from Hebrew and Greek; mainly by St. Jerome at the end of the 4th century

Docetism

The heretical doctrine (associated with the Gnostics) that Jesus had no human body and his sufferings and death on the cross were apparent rather than real.

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