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Cheops

pyramids at Gizeh were built for him

Lydians

contributed coined money

Cuneiform

sumerian writing

Rosetta Stone

helped decipher heiroglyphics

polytheistic

worship of many gods

scribe

educated person who could read and write

papyrus

old paper, made from leaves of grassy plants

Mt. Sinai

where Moses received the 10 commandments

Damascus

oldest continuously inhabited city in the world

Amon-Ra

god of the sun

anthropomorphic

human-like

Aramaic

language spoken by Jesus

Hittites

used iron to make tools & wheels

royal road

most famous Road of Persians

Hermes

greek messenger of the gods

Athena

goddess of wisdom - symbol is the owl

Hera

wife of zeus, goddess of marriage

Demeter

goddess of grain and crops

Apollo

god of light, music, and truth

Poseidon

god of the sea

Zeus

king of the gods, decision maker

Hephaestus

god of metal craft, lame & ugly

Aphrodite

goddess of physical beauty & love

Hades

god of the underworld

Dionysus

god of wine & drama

Ares

god of war

Hestia

goddess of hearth & family

Artemis

goddess of the moon & hunting

Achilles

greatest Greek warrior

Hector

greatest Trojan warrior

Paris

abducted Helen - the cause of the Trojan War

Agamemnon

leader of Greek expedition of Troy

Cyclops

one-eyed giant

Theseus

killed the minotaur

Hippocrates

founded the school of medicine (words: acute & chronic)

Thales

earliest philosopher

Pythagoras

mathematics

Democritus

atomic theory

Socrates

encouraged students to think for themselves

Socrates

said, "The unexamined life is not worth living"

Socrates

believed that admitting ignorance is the beginning of knowledge

Socrates

executed by drinking poison

Socrates

taught Plato

Plato

wrote THE REPUBLIC

Plato

student of Socrates

Plato

founded the "Academy"

Plato

taught Aristotle

Aristotle

student of Plato

Aristotle

taught Alexander the Great

Sophists

believed in education

Hoplites

greek foot soldiers

Helots

Spartan slaves

Lycurgus

developed laws in Sparta

Draco

Established a HARSH law code in Athens

Herodotus & Thucydides

ancient historians

Marathon

Site of most famous battle of Persian War

Sparta

most powerful city in Peloponnesus

Athens

controlled the Delian League

Koine

a dialect of Greek Language

Hegemony

dominance of one state over another

Ptolemy

defeated 3 others to become king of Egypt

Sappho

writer of lyric poetry

Pericles

Athenian leader who died during a plague

Alexander the Great

established 20 cities, rose to power during Hellenistic Age

Res Publica

"the people's thing" (Greek)

Mare Nostrum

"our sea" (Greek)

Latins

tribe of Indo-Europeans whose settlement became Rome

Carthage

Rome's enemy in Punic Wars

Carthage

ruled by Hannibal

Hannibal

famous military leader of Carthage

Tiber River

Rome founded on its banks

Mesopotamia

land between the rivers

Epic of Gilgamesh

compared to Moses' story

Assyrian weapons

made of iron

theocracy

government ruled by a priest (considered to be the representative of the gods)

Ziggurat

Sumerian temple

Code of Hammurabi

first effort by an empire to record laws - like 10 commandments

Assur

chief god of the Assyrians

Tigris & Euphrates

major rivers of Mesopotamia

agriculture

most important factor in development of civilization

Hatshepsut

first female pharaoh

Po River

largest river valley in Italy

crops of Italy

grain, grapes, olives

Troy

founder of Rome came from here

Octavian

first emperor of Rome

Aeneas

hero of Virgil's epic

First Triumvirate

Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar

Sulla

remained dictator for 3 years

Battle of Actium

Octavium defeated Cleopatra and Marc Antony here

Augustus

emperor when Christ was born during the "Pax Romana"

Marcus Aurelius

death marked the end of "Pax Romana"

Marcus Aurelius

wrote MEDITATIONS

Claudius

had physical handicaps

Caligula

a.k.a. "Little Boots"

Caligula

deranged, insane, morally corrupt

Romulus Augustus

last emporer in Rome

Nero

emperor who persecuted christians

Nero

blamed for terrible fire in Rome

Nero

emperor who murdered his mother, Agrippina

Hadrian

built a 73 mile wall across Britain

Dioletis

divided the empire into east & west

Constantine

issued the Edict of Milan

Byzantine Empire

survived until 1453

Byzantine Empire

Eastern portion of the Roman Empire

Huns

fierce Nomadic horsemen

Angles & Saxons

took over Britain

Visigoths

western Germans

Franks & Alemanni

took over Gaul

Rome

Peter and Paul were martyred here

Peter

first pope

Stephen

first martyr, died in Jerusalem

Theodosius

closed all non-Christian places of worship

Paul

important "voice" in early Christianity

Sanhedrin

Jewish ruling council

Pharisees

"seperated ones"

Essenes

pious Jews devoted to prayer

Sadducees

wealthy, well-educated Jews

Zealots

people of action

creed

statement of religious belief

heresy

False teachings

Orthodoxy

true or accepted teachings

Hagia Sophia

Orthodox cathedral built in Constantinople, built by Justinian,

Justinian

a great Byzantine emperor, had the Hagia Sophia built

1453

end of the Byzantine Empire (by the Ottoman Turks), beginning of the Ottoman Empire

jihad

means "struggle"

Muslim

follower of Islam

Bedouins

nomads who moved from oasis to oasis

Mecca

holiest city of Islam

Mecca

where the Kaaba is located

Mecca

Muslims pray towards this city

Kaaba

"cube"

Kaaba

ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham

Jews & Christians

"People of the Book"

Mosque

muslim place of worship

Muezzin

person who calls Muslims to pray

Mullah

teacher of Islamic law

Caliph

one of the leaders of Islam after Mohammad

Allah

Arabic word for God

5 Pillars

Allah is God. prayer. give to the poor. fasting. pilgrimage to Mecca

5 Pillars

duties of every Muslim

Ramadan

the Holy month of Islam

Hajj

pilgrimage Muslims make to Mecca

Abraham

connects Jews, Christians, and Muslims

Julius Caesar

made dictator for life

Julius Caesar

assinated by the Senate because they were afraid of his power

Julius Caesar

crossed the Rubicon

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