antemortem and/or postmortem injuries resulting from friction of the skin against a firm object resulting in the removal of the epidermis.
a localized accumulation of pus.
the process of taking in, as in a colored object which absorbs certain rays of light and reflects other rays giving the object its recognizable color.
to bluntly adjoin another structure; for example, the line of eye closure.
dimethylketone; a colorless liquid which is used to soften and remove scabs; a solvent for restorative wax, or a stain remover.
a color not found in the visible spectrum; a neutral color such as white, black, gray, and silver and gold (for decorative purposes).
Acquired facial markings
facial markings that develop during one's lifetime, primarily as a result of repetitious use of certain muscles.
a process of mixing colored lights on a surface on which the wave lengths of each are combined; adding two or more colored lights together to create another color of light.
sticking to or adhering closely; substances which may be applied in order to sustain contact of two surfaces.
a colloidal solution dispensed as a mist.
psychological; a visual impression remaining after the stimulus has been removed.
a pressured atomizer utilized for spraying liquid paint or cosmetic upon a surface.
a bony ridge found on the inferior surface of the maxilla and the superior surface of the mandible which contains the sockets for the teeth.
an abnormal protrusion of the alveolar process(es).
to cut off a limb; to dismember.
in color harmony, two or more hues which have the same hue in common.
descriptive references for locating anatomical structures by means of the anatomical structures which are known.
the body is erect facing the observer, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs pointed away from the body.
a material or technique employed to secure tissues or restorative materials in a fixed position; an armature.
a sharp turn formed by the meeting of two borders or surfaces; angulus.
Angle of the mandible
a bony angle formed by the junction of the posterior edge of the ramus of the mandible and the inferior surface of the body of the mandible; marks widest part of lower 1/3 of face.
Angle of projection
the degree from vertical at which the surface(s) of a prominent feature projects.
Angulus oris eminence
The small convex prominence lateral to the end of the line of lip closure of the mouth; a natural facial marking.
Angulus oris sulcus
The groove at each end of the line of closure of the mouth; a natural facial marking.
before or in front of; an anatomical term of position and direction which denotes the front or forward part.
the external openings of the nostril.
the inner rim of the ear.
a small eminence obliquely opposite the tragus on the superior border of the lobe of the ear.
watery; prepared with water as a solvent.
a clear, thin, alkaline fluid which fills the anterior chamber of the eyeball.
Aquiline nasal profile
curved, as the beak of an eagle; as viewed from the profile, a nasal profile which exhibits a "hook" or convexity in its dorsum.
a structure which exhibits a curved or bow-like outline
Arch of the wing
the inferior margin of the nasal wing which forms a distinct concave arc superiorly.
containing minute interspaces in a tissue.
framework; a material, commonly of pliable metal or wood, employed to provide support for a wax restoration.
to draw out liquids or gasses by means of suction.
lack of symmetry, balance, or proportion.
a dispenser that turns a liquid (such as perfume or cosmetics) into a fine spray.
1) in cosmetology, the vehicle in a cosmetic (oil base); the initial application of cream or cosmetic; 2) the lower part of anything, the supporting part.
white, yellow, red, and brown; for hues which correspond to the pigments of the skin.
Basket weave suture
(cross stitch) a network of stitches which cross the borders of a cavity or excision to anchor fillers and to sustain tissues in their proper position.
those areas of the fleshy lips, cheeks, chin, and neck that exhibit hair growth.
dissimilarities existing in the two sides or halves of an object.
the bilateral view; an inferior or superior viewpoint which permits the comparison of the two sides or halves of an object or facial feature.
an achromatic color; the absence of all color in pigmentation.
to whiten by removing color; to make pale.
a chemical which lightens or blanches skin discolorations.
the act of lightening a discoloration by hypodermic means or by surface compress.
color which escapes at the edge of a mixture.
to mix or intermingle colors smoothly; to make a gradual change from one color to another.
a thin vesicle on the skin containing liquid matter.
having relatively large patches of color somewhat different from the remainder of the coloring.
light yellow in coloration; a term commonly employed to describe hair color.
Body of the mandible
the horizontal portion of the lower jaw.
a raised support; the arched portion of the nose which is supported by the nasal bones; a structure or span connecting two parts of a mutilated bone.
(interrupted suture) a temporary suture consisting of individually cut and tied stitches employed to sustain the proper position of tissues.
brightness; in colored illumination, the quantity of illumination passing through a color transparency.
brown or copper-like in coloration.
The color of tanned leather.
dark brown in coloration; a term commonly employed to describe hair color.
(ecchymosis) an injury caused by a blow without laceration; a contusion.
the space between the lips and the gums and teeth; the vestibule of the oral cavity.
natural, shallow concavities of the cheeks which extend obliquely downward from the medial or lateral margins of the cheekbones.
the principle muscle of the cheek which compresses the cheeks and forms the lateral wall of the mouth.
the vertical furrow of the cheek; an acquired facial marking.
(dental prognathism) oblique insertion of the teeth
to oxidize or to cause to be oxidized by fire or equivalent means; a tissue reaction or injury resulting from the application of heat, extreme cold, caustic material, radiation, friction, or electricity.
in cosmetology, a compressed powder.
any malignant neoplasm, marked by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
an antiseptic/disinfectant employed to dry moist tissues and to bleach discolored tissues.
(crimson) purple-red in coloration.
the yellow pigment of the skin.
a specialized type of dense connective tissue; attached to the ends of bones and forming parts of structures, such as the nasal septum and the framework of the ear.
casting; any object which has been made from a mold; the positive reproduction obtained from a negative impression.
a chemical capable of drying tissues by searing; caustic.
a hollow place or area.
a substance used to promote the adhesion of two separated surfaces, such as the lips, the eyelids, or the margins of an incision.
reduced to carbon; the state of tissues destroyed by burning.
(intensity) refers to the purity or dullness (grayness) of the hue.
a color having hue; a color of the visible spectrum.
a clear syrup-like liquid which evaporates, leaving a contractile, white film; a liquid sealer.
s suspension of pigments in a liquid vehicle bound together in such a manner that there is no separation of particles.
a visual sensation perceived by the eye and the mind due to the activity and vibration of light.
in cosmetology, a substance used to impart color to an object; dye, pigment, ink, or paint.
colored glass, gelatin, or other substances which transmit light of certain wave lengths while absorbing the others.
illumination of an identifiable hue.
a circle in which the primary, secondary, and intermediate hues are arranged in orderly intervals.
the fleshy termination of the nasal septum at the base of the nose; located between the nostrils; the most inferior part of the mass of the nose.
directly opposite hues on the color wheel; any two pigmentary hues which by their mixture in equal quantities, produce gray.
the color and texture of the skin, especially that of the face.
forming a part of ingredient.
a broken bone which pierces the skin.
gauze or absorbent cotton saturated with water or an appropriate chemical and placed under or upon tissues to preserve, bleach,dry, constrict, or reduce swelling.
exhibiting a depressed or hollow surface; a concavity.
a facial profile variation in which the forehead protrudes beyond the eyebrows while the chin recedes from the plane of the upper lip.
Concave nasal profile
a depressed profile form which may dip concavely from root to tip.
a basic facial profile form in which the forehead protrudes beyond the eyebrows while the chin protrudes beyond the plane of the upper lip (e.g. infantine, retrousse, and least common)
a facial profile variation in which the forehead protrudes beyond the eyebrows while the upper lip and chin project equally to an imaginary vertical line.
the concave shell of the ear; the deepest depression of the ear.
treatments of a restorative nature performed during the embalming operation.
a rounded prominence at the end of a bone forming an articulation; he posterior process of the ramus of the mandible.
Cones of the eye
sensory nerves in the retina of the eye having to do with color detection.
to contract or compress.
the outline or surface form.
the color of an object being converted or completely destroyed when one color of illumination strikes an object of a completely different color.
curved evenly; resembling a segment of the outer edge of a sphere.
a profile variation in which the forehead recedes from the eyebrows while the chin protrudes beyond the plane of the upper lip.
Convex nasal profile
(roman, aquiline) a nasal profile which exhibits a hump in its linear form.
a basic profile form in which the forehead recedes from the eyebrows while the chin recedes from the plane of the upper lip (most common).
a profile variation in which the forehead recedes from the eyebrows while the chin and upper project equally to an imaginary vertical line.
blue, green, purple, or any intermediate pigmentary hue in which they predominate; a receding hue which creates the illusion of distance from the observer; a color of short wave lengths.
Cords of the neck
vertical prominences of the neck; an acquired facial marking.
the transparent structure which constitutes the anterior segment of the external layer of the eyeball.
the anterior, non-articulating process of the ramus of the mandible which serves as the insertion for the temporalis muscle.
having an abnormal amount of fat on the body.
Corrective shaping with cosmetics
(corrective shaping) a cosmetic technique which consists of highlighting those parts of the face or individual features to enlarge or bring them forward or shadowing them to reduce the appearance of size or deepen a depression.
a pyramid-shaped muscle of facial expression which draws the eyebrows inferiorly and medially.
a media for beautifying the complexion and skin, etc.
a cosmetic medium composed of two, three, or all four basic pigments.
the initial application of a cream or paste cosmetic to skin tissues.
the process of applying cosmetics to a surface.
(beautician) a professional trained in the application of cosmetics and the styling of hair.
the study of beautifying and improving the complexion, skin, hair, and nails.
that part of the human skull, which encloses the brain.
a semi-solid cosmetic.
the top of a curve (as a wave) where the direction changes.
the horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone separating the cranial cavity from the nasal cavity.
(basket weave) a network of stitches which cross the borders of a cavity or excision to anchor fillers and to sustain tissues in their proper position.
(vertex) the topmost part of the head.
optic facial sulcus
Crura of the antihelix
the superior and anterior bifurcating branches of the antihelix of the ear.
Crus of the helix
the origin of the helix which is flattened in the concha.
separation of the head from the body; to decapitate is the act of such separation.
separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial or autolytic enzymes.
a material employed to fill cavities or excisions and to serve as a foundation for the superficial wax restoration.
loss of water from the body or tissues
the loss of moisture from body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem.
having the component parts closely compacted together; relatively opaque.
the thickness of the applied cosmetic.
(buck teeth) oblique insertion of the teeth
ligature around the superior and inferior teeth employed to hold the mandible in a fixed position.
to lower inferiorly or to reduce projection.
a hollow or shallow concave area in a surface
Depressor anguli oris
a muscle of facial expression which depresses the angle of the mouth.
Depressor labii inferioris
a muscle of facial expression which draws the lower lip inferiorly and slightly lateral.
a state or degree of being deep.
(dermis, skin) the corium, or true skin.
(skin slip) the separation of the epidermis from the dermis as a result of putrefaction.
rendered thoroughly dry; exhausted of moisture, dehydrated.
a variation from the common or established.
a frontal-view geometric head shape which is widest across the cheekbones, narrowing in width in both the forehead and the jaws.
a double bellied muscle which draws the hyoid bone superiorly.
a substance thinned or reduced in concentration; a cosmetic lessened in brilliance.
shallow depressions located on the cheek or chin in a rounded or vertical form; e.g. one of the natural facial markings.
disjoining of bones.
the act of cutting apart.
to expand or swell.
a state of stretching out or becoming inflated.
a state of being twisted or pushed out of natural shape or position.
top; the ant4erior protruding ridge of the nose from the root to the tip of the lobe.
a wooden or metal rod used as an armature.
a compacted cake-type cosmetic of red coloration.
a non-preserving powder utilized in setting cosmetics and a wax firming agent. Examples include; talcum powder, and cosmetic powder.
freedom from wetness; a condition of tissues necessary for the adhesion of cement, sealer, deep filler, or wax.
(swarthy) somewhat dark in color; when used to describe the complexion color.
the organ of hearing.
(bruise or contusion) an injury caused by a blow without laceration; a contusion.
abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissues or body cavities
an electrically heated blade used to dry moist tissues, reduce swollen tissues, and restore contour to natural form.
a raised surface or part.
a relatively long and slightly dipping curve.
excessive leanness; a wasted condition resulting in sunken surfaces of the face.
the process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to temporarily inhibit organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance.
To fix or fasten in place.
a prominence or projection of a bone.
a soothing agent having the ability to soften tissues; massage cream or a cosmetic possessing this characteristic.
the process of making color appear more vivid by illuminating it with a light of the same color.
a permanent mixture of two or more immiscible substances (oil and water) which are united with the aid of a binder (gum) or emulsifier (soap).
the removal of an entire mass or part, especially a tumor or the eyeball, without rupture.
(occipitofrontalis) the muscle that draws the scalp posteriorly and inferiorly and raises the eyebrows.
the outermost layer of skin; the cuticle or scarf skin.
a clear, volatile liquid used as a wax solvent or to remove grease, oil, and adhesive tape stains.
to remove as by cutting out.
the area from which tissue has been removed. Excise - to remove as by cutting out.
any visible surface which is to remain uncovered or unclothed.
External auditory meatus
the opening or passageway of the ear.
weight applied to a surface.
drawn or pulled out.
(supercilia) superficial hairs covering the superciliary arches.
a cosmetic in pencil form for coloring the hairs of the eyebrow, or creating an eyebrow where the hairs were removed.
a thin, dome-like shell made of hardened cloth, metal, or plastic placed beneath eyelids to restore natural curvature and to maintain the position of posed eyelids.
(palpebrae) two movable flaps of skin which cover and uncover each eyeball.
a cosmetic color applied to the upper eyelid.
(orbital cavity) the bony region containing the eyeball; the orbital cavity.
the "character" lines of the face and neck; wrinkles, grooves, cords, and dimples.
the silhouettes of the face from the side view.
mathematical relationships of the facial features to one another and/or to the head and face.
to reduce gradually to an indistinguishable edge; to "taper".
material used to fill a large cavity (e.g. plaster paris and cotton, liquid sealer, and cotton)
the degree of rigidity or stability, a condition of the tissues necessary for the application of wax.
(wound filler) the most viscous type of wax; a putty-like material used to fill large cavities or model features.
First degree burn
(hyperemia) an injury caused by heat which produces redness of the skin.
flushed with red, when describing a complexion; not as vivid as ruddy.
the illumination produced by a tubular electric discharge lamp; the fluorescence of phosphors coating the inside of a tube.
an elongated prominence adjoining a surface.
an opening in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes from the brain.
the quality of a color to draw attention by means of its intensity or "advancing" characteristics.
that part of the face above the eyes.
External shape; a mold for casting; produce a certain shape; to constitute existing elements.
a depression; a concavity.
the complexion cosmetic in ornamental cosmetology.
Fourth degree burn
total evacuation (absence) of tissue
the vertical restraining fold of mucous membrane on the midline of the inside of each lip connecting the lip with the gum.
anterior; the anterior view of the face or featu
the anterior third of the cranium, forming the forehead and the anterior portion of the roof of the skull.
pared, rounded, unmargined prominences of the frontal bone found approximately one inch beneath the normal hairline.
Frontal process of the maxilla
the ascending part of the upper jaw which gradually protrudes as it rises beside the nasal bone to meet the frontal bone; the ascending process of the upper jaw.
the quality and quantity of illumination used for presentation of casketed remains.
(wrinkle) a crevice in the skin accompanied by adjacent elevations.
a light, open-mesh variety of muslin or similar material.
the shape of a plane figure determined by its outline, such as rounded, oval, square, etc.
a single bony prominence of the frontal bone located between the superciliary arches in the inferior part of the frontal bone above the root of the nose.
a syrupy, colorless liquid obtained from fats or oils as a by-product of the manufacturing of soaps and fatty acids; used as a vehicle for some cosmetics.
a neutral, achromatic color resulting from the mixture of black and white pigments; a color resulting from the mixture of complementary pigmentary hues in equal quantities.
a nasal profile form in which the dorsum exhibits a straight line from the root to the tip; a straight nasal profile.
the hue resulting from the mixture of yellow and blue pigments in equal quantities; one of three secondary pigmentary hues.
an elongated depression in a relatively level plane or surface.
the outline of hair growth on the head or face; the lowest centrally located part of the hair of the cranium.
a grouping of hairs, affixed by suturing, utilized in hair restorations.
the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth.
the outline of the exterior margins of e head.
the vertical measurement of a feature or part of a feature; the distance above the base.
the outer rim of the ear.
red pigment; the protein coloring matter of the red blood corpuscles which serves to convey oxygen to the tissues forming oxyhemoglobin.
(intradermal suture) a type of suture used to close incisions in such a manner that the ligature remains entirely under the epidermis.
a surface lying at right angles to the source of illumination which reflects the maximum amount of light; the brighter part.
parallel to the plane of the horizon.
roughly "U" shaped, with the front being narrower than the sweep of the curve.
the property of a color by which it is distinguished from other colors.
any liquid or semi-liquid of the body, e.g. the aqueous or vitreous humor of the eyeball.
shaped as a bent wood weapon with a central belly, resembling a "cupid" bow; the five arcs in the line of the lip closure resemble the design of the classic hunt bow.
the insertion of chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle.
Hypodermic tissue building
the injection of special creams or liquids into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle to restore natural contour.
giving or casting of light.
the illumination resulting from the glowing of a heated filament.
a clean cut into tissue or skin.
the depression between the mental eminence and the inferior incisor teeth.
the four teeth located anteriorly from the midline on each jaw; used for cutting.
slope; deviation from the horizontal or vertical; oblique.
a blue dye obtained from certain plants or made synthetically, usually from aniline dyes; a deep violet blue designated by Newton as one of the seven prismatic colors.
babyish, childlike in regard to much adipose tissue.
beneath; lower in plane or position; the undersurface of an organ or indicating a structure below another structure; toward the feet.
Inferior nasal conchae
the lowermost scroll-shaped bones on the sidewalls of the nasal cavity.
Inferior palpebral sulcus
the furrow of the lower attached border of the inferior palpebra; an "acquired" facial marking.
the reaction of the tissue to injurious agents, usually characterized by heat, redness, swelling, and pain.
a form of prognathism in which the base of the nasal cavity protrudes abnormally.
the part of the invisible spectrum adjacent to the red end of the visible spectrum.
to restrain, hinder, or retard.
to introduce forcibly into the circulatory system issues, etc. with a hypodermic syringe for restorative art purposes.
eminence at the medial corner of the closed eyelids.
superiorly, the skin portion of the upper lip from the attached margin of the upper upper mucous membrane to the base of the nose; and inferiorly, the skin portion of the lower lip from the attached margin of the lower mucous membrane to the labiomental sulcus.
existing in a high degree of brilliance; vivid.
to become more brilliant or more vivid in color.
refers to the purity or dullness (grayness) of the hue.
the vertical or transverse furrows between the eyebrows; "acquired" facial markings.
a pigmentary hue produced by mixing, in equal quantities, a primary hue with its adjacent secondary hue on the color wheel.
(bridge stitch) a temporary suture consisting of individually cut and tied stitches employed to sustain the proper position of tissues.
a notch or opening between the tragus and the antitragus of the ear.
(hidden stitch) a type of suture used to close incisions in such a manner that the ligature remains entirely under the epidermis.
tissues turned in an opposite direction or folded inward.
a three sided figure whose base is superior to its apex; when used to describe a frontal-view geometric headshape, a head which is wide at the forehead and narrow at the jaw.
the inferior border of the mandible.
any two hues seen together which modify each other in the direction of their complements.
the vertical furrows of each lip extending from within the mucous membranes into the integumentary lips; acquired facial markings, e.g. furrows of age.
the junction of the lower integumentary lip and the superior border of the chin, which may appear as a furrow; a natural facial marking.
to cut or tear into irregular segments.
an irregularly torn or jagged wound, ranging from superficial scratches to deep tears in the tissue.
oil from sheep wool.
(peach fuzz) the downy hair of a fetus, children, or women.
a position or direction away from midline; to the side.
escape of blood or fluid.
a vertical dimension
a nasal index common to individuals of Western European descent having a long, narrow, and high-bridge.
Levator anguli oris
a muscle of facial expression that elevates the angle of the mouth.
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
a muscle of facial expression that elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostril opening; the common elevator.
Levator labii superioris
a muscle of facial expression that elevates and extends the upper lip.
Levator palpebrae superioris
a muscle of facial expression that raises the upper eyelid.
to tie or bind using cord, wire, or thread.
thread, cord, or wire used for tying vessels, tissues, or bones.
to shine; a form of electromagnetic radiation that acts upon the retina of the eye to make sight possible.
Line of closure
the line that forms between two structures, such as the lips or the eyelids when in a closed position, which marks their place of contact with each other.