Anatomy and Physiology I Lab Test 2

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Please study the pictures as well, as diagrams cannot be added here.

Sharp, slender process?

Spine

Small, rounded projection?

Tubercle

Narrow ridge of bone?

Crest

Large rounded projection?

Tuberosity

Structure supported on neck?

Head

Arm-like projection?

Ramus

Rounded, articular projection?

Condyle

Narrow opening?

Fissure

Canal-like structure?

Meatus

Round or oval opening through a bone?

Foramen

Shallow depression?

Fossa

Air-filled cavity?

Sinus

Large, irregularly shaped projection?

Trochanter

Raised area on or above a condyle?

Epicondyle

Projection or prominence?

Process

Which bone markings are sites of muscle attachment?

Spine, Tubercle, Crest, Tuberosity, Trochanter, Epicondyle

Which bone markings take part in joint formation?

Head, Ramus, Fossa

Which bone markings are a passageway for nerve or blood vessels?

Foramen, Meatus, Fissure, Condyle

What bones are long bones?

Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Phalanges, Metacarpals, Femur, Tibia, Metatarsals, Fibula

What bones are short bones?

Carpals, Tarsals, Patella, Calcaneus

What bones are flat bones?

Skull/Cranium, Sternum, Scapula, Ribs, Clavicle

What bones are irregularly shaped?

Vertebra, Ilium, Ischium, Pubis, bones of the Pelvic Girdle

Where is the medullary cavity?

In the diaphysis (center of diaphysis is yellow marrow).

What is in the medullary cavity?

Yellow marrow

What is the order of layers from deep to superficial of the medullary cavity?

Yellow marrow, Endosteum, Compact bone, Periosteum

What is the inside of spongy bone called?

Trabeculae of spongy bone

Where is the site of blood cell formation?

Red marrow cavity

What contains spongy bone in adults?

Epiphysis

What is made of compact bone?

Diaphysis

Where is the major submembranous site of osteoclasts?

Endosteum and Periosteum

What is the scientific term for bone shaft?

Diaphysis

What contains fat in adult bones?

Medullary cavity (yellow marrow)

What is the growth plate remnant?

Epiphyseal line

What is the major submembranous site of osteoblasts?

Periosteum

What is the function of the periosteum?

It protects bone and structure from which blood vessels and nerves enter bone. It provides an attachment site for tendons and ligaments and supplies osteoblasts for new bone.

What is the route taken by nutrients through a bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna?

Periosteum --> Perforating Canal --> Central (Haversian) Canal --> Canaliculus --> Osteocyte

What are layers of bony matrix around a central canal?

Concentric Lamellae

What is the site of osteocytes?

Lacunae

What is the longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves?

Central canal

What are minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon?

Canaliculi?

What are inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance?

Matrix

What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?

Provides flexibility and strength.

What are the important organic bone components?

Cells, collagen fibers, ground substances (proteoglycans and glycoproteins)

Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?

Provides hardness and strength and resists compression.

What cartilage supports the external ear?

Elastic

What cartilage is between the vertebrae?

Fibrocartilage

What cartilage forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)?

Hyaline

What cartilage forms the epiglottis?

Elastic

What cartilage is articular cartilage?

Hyaline

What cartilage is found in the meniscus in the knee joint?

Fibrocartilage

What cartilage connects the ribs to the sternum?

Hyaline

What cartilage is the most effective at resisting compression?

Fibrocartilage

What cartilage is the most springy and flexible?

Elastic

What cartilage is the most abundant?

Hyaline

What is the forehead bone?

Frontal

What is the cheekbone?

Zygomatic

What is the lower jaw?

Mandible

What is the bridge of the nose?

Nasal

What are the posterior bones of the hard palate?

Palatine

What consists of much of the lateral and superior cranium?

Parietal

What is the most posterior part of the cranium?

Occipital

What is the single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor?

Sphenoid

What are the tiny bones bearing tear ducts?

Lacrimal

What is the anterior part of the hard palate?

Maxilla

What is the superior and medial nasal conchae formed from its projections?

Ethmoid

What is the site of the mastoid process?

Temporal

What is the site of the sella turcica?

Sphenoid

What is the site of the cribriform plate?

Ethmoid

What is the site of the mental foramen?

Mandible

What is the site of the styloid processes?

Temporal

What four bones contain paranasal sinuses?

Ethmoid, Frontal, Maxilla, Sphenoid

The condyles at what bone articulate with the atlas?

Occipital

The foramen magnum is contained where?

Occipital

The small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscle attach, is what?

Hyoid

The nasal septum is?

Vomer

The middle ear is found where?

Temporal

What bears an upward protrusion, the "cock's comb", or crista galli?

Ethmoid

What bones contain alveoli bearing teeth?

Mandible and Maxilla

What is a suture?

Fibrous joint between skull bones.

What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture?

Occipital and Parietal

What are the eight bones of the cranium?

Frontal, Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Right and Left Parietal, Right and Left Temporal

What two cranial bones have right and left components?

Parietal and Temporal

What are possible functions of the sinuses?

Lighten the skull and are resonance chambers for speech.

Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor?

It articulates with all of the other cranial bones.

What vertebral type contains foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain?

Cervical Vertebra - typical (Atlas and Axis)

The dens here provide a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)?

Axis

What has transverse processes faceted for articulate with ribs; spinous process points sharply downward?

Thoracic vertebra

What is composite bone and articulates with the hip bone laterally?

Sacrum

What is a massive vertebrae and is weight-sustaining?

Lumbar vertebra

What is known as the "tail bone" and is a vestigial fused vertebrae?

Coccyx

What supports the head and allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles?

Atlas

What are two factors/structures that permit flexibility of the vertebral column?

Intervertebral discs and curvatures

What is a herniated disc?

A ruptured disc in which a portion of the disc protrudes outwards.

What problems might a herniated disc cause?

It could compress a nerve, leading to pain and possibly paralysis.

What two spinal curvatures are obvious at birth?

Thoracic and Sacral

What are secondary curvatures?

Cervical and Lumbar

What is the difference between a true rib and a false rib?

True ribs attach to the sternum and false ribs attach to the sternum indirection or not at all (floating).

What are the parts of the sternum from top to bottom?

Manubrium, Body, and Xiphoid Process

A raised area on the lateral surface of the humerus to which the deltoid muscle attaches?

Deltoid Tuberosity

What is the arm bone?

Humerus

What are the two bones of the shoulder girdle?

Clavicle and Scapula

What are the forearm bones?

Radius and Ulna

What is the scapular region to which the clavicle connects?

Acromion

What is the shoulder girdle bone that is unattached to the axial skeleton?

Scapula

What is the shoulder girdle bone that articulates with and transmits forces to the bony thorax?

Clavicle

What is a depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerus?

Glenoid Cavity

What is the process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment?

Coracoid process

What is the "collarbone"?

Scapula

What is the distal condyle of the humerus that articulates with the ulna?

Trochlea

What is the medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position?

Ulna

What is the rounded knob on the humerus that adjoins the radius?

Capitulum

What is an anterior depression superior to the trochlea which receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed?

Coronoid fossa

What forearm bone is involved in the formation of the elbow joint?

Ulna

What are the wrist bones?

Carpals

What are the finger bones?

Phalanges

The heads of what bones form the knuckles?

Metacarpals

What bones articulate with the clavicle?

Scapula and Sternum

What are characteristics of the pectoral girdle?

Lightweight, flexibility most important, insecure axial and limb attachments

What are characteristics of the pelvic girdle?

Weight-bearing most important, secure axial and limb attachments, massive

Distinguish between the true and false pelvis.

True pelvis is the region inferior to the pelvic brim, which is encircled by bone. False pelvis is the area medial to flaring iliac bones and lies superior to the pelvic brim.

What bones fuse to form the coxal bone?

Ilium, Ischium, Pubis

What is the "sit down" bone of the coxal bone?

Ischium

What is the point where the coxal bones join anteriorly?

Pubic symphysis

What is the superiormost margin of the coxal bone?

Iliac crest

What is a deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone?

Acetabulum

What is the joint between the axial skeleton and the pelvic girdle?

Sacroiliac joint

What is the longest, strongest bone in the body?

Femur

What is a thin lateral leg bone?

Fibula

What is the heavy medial leg bone?

Tibia

What bones form the knee joint?

Tibia and Femur

What is the point where the patellar ligament attaches?

Tibial tuberosity

What is the kneecap?

Patella

What is the shinbone?

Tibia

What is the medial ankle projection?

Medial malleolus

What is the lateral ankle projection?

Lateral malleolus

What is the largest tarsal bone?

Calcaneus

What are the bones forming the instep of the foot?

Metatarsals

What are the ankle bones?

Tarsals

What is the opening in the hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami?

Obturator foramen

What are the sites for muscle attachment on the proximal femur?

Gluteal tuberosity and the greater and lesser trochanter

What tarsal bone "sits" on the calcaneus?

Talus

What is the weight-bearing bone of the leg?

Tibia

What tarsal bone articulates with the tibia?

Talus

What is a fontanel?

Fibrous membranes that allow for the brain to growth and for slight compression during birth. The fontaels will ossify as the fetus ages.

What joint type typically allows a slight degree of movement?

Cartilaginous

What joint type includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis?

Cartilaginous

What joint type is found in essentially immovable joints?

Fibrous

What joint type includes sutures as the most remembered example?

Fibrous

What joint type is characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions?

Cartilaginous

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