(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1765, required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every legal document, license, newspaper, pamphlet, and almanac, and imposed special "stamp duties" on packages of playing cards and dice. A group called the Sons of Liberty was formed in resistance. Boycotts forced Parliament to repeal this act.
(4.1) political activist, one of the founders of the Sons of Liberty. Called for boycott of British goods after Townshend Acts were passed.
(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1767, placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Led to outrage and tons of people boycotted British goods.
(4.1) In 1770, British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed, including Crispus Attucks, a sailor of African and Native American ancestry.
committees of correspondence
(4.1) created by Samuel Adams as a way for colonies to communicate with each other about threats to American liberties.
Boston Tea Party
(4.1) In 1773, Boston rebels dumped 18,000 pounds of the East India Company's tea into the waters of Boston harbor as a protest, because the company was not being taxed to sell tea, but the colonial tea sellers were.
King George III
(4.1) King of England during the American Revolution, highly disliked by the colonists.
(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1774 in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. Passed series of measures including shutting down Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act, which allowed British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings. This resulted in the colonists forming the First Continental Congress and drawing up a declaration of colonial rights. - Tom says this was a combination of the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act.
(4.1) rule imposed by military forces. General Thomas Gage placed Boston under this when he became the new governor of Massachusetts.
(4.1) civilian soldiers who boasted that they were ready to fight on a minute's notice
French Protestant who believed in predestination. Didn't believe in the Church hierarchy. Went to Switzerland and got many followers.
covenant of works
The deal between God and Adam; Adam and Eve would get to join him in paradise so long as they obeyed his commandments. Adam broke this covenant by eating the apple.
Deal between God and Moses that as long as people tried to live by the Ten Commandments, he wouldn't bring down the fire and brimstone.
covenant of grace
agreement that Christ made with all who believed in him, which he sealed with his crucifixion, promising eternal life and savior by God's grace.
Second Continental Congress
(4.2) the congress formed in 1775. Made George Washington commander of the new Continental Army. Approved the Declaration of Independence.
Olive Branch Petition
(4.2) a petition created by the Second Continental Congress asking for peace between the colonies and Britain once again. King George rejected it.
(4.2) An anonymous pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, saying why he thought America should become independent. It was highly successful.
(4.2) A Virginia lawyer, wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Declaration of Independence
(4.2) Written by Thomas Jefferson, declared independence from England. Was based significantly on John Locke's ideas of "natural rights." Said the government must have the consent of the people.
(4.2) supporters of independence from England
(4.2) people who opposed independence and remained loyal to the Crown
the agreement between a people and their government that it could rule so long as it enforced the social covenant - that's what Tom said, but the internet said it had to do with the Scots...hmm
the agreement among the saints (separatists) that they would form a congregation to come together and worship God
(4.3) the site of the Continental Army's camp during the winter of 1777-1778. Poorly housed, dressed, and fed, many died from cold and starvation.
(4.3) the city in New Jersey where Washington's troops attacked the Hessians by surprise on Christmas day. The Hessians had drunk too much the night before because they did not expect the troops to march through the storm and attack.
This victory helped improve the Americans' moral.
(4.3) Where General John Burgoyne was forced to surrender when American troops surrounded him in 1777. This changed Britain's war strategy; from then on, they kept their troops along the coast, close to the big guns and supply bases.
(4.3) a general and progressive increase in prices, caused by the value of money decreasing
(4.3) selling scarce goods at a high price for profit
(4.4) in Virginia, where the British formally surrendered in 1781
Friedrich von Steuben
(4.4) Prussian captain and talented drillmaster who volunteered his services to George Washington in 1778 "to make regular soldiers out of country bumpkins"
Marquis de Lafayette
(4.4) a French aristocrat who offered his assistance to George Washington in 1778. He lobbied for French reinforcements in 1779, and led a command in Virginia in the last years of the war.
(4.4) Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.
Treaty of Paris
(4.4) Peace treaty which confirmed U.S. independence and set the boundaries of the new nation.
(4.4) belief in the equality of all people
the contract made by the saints before landing on Plymouth Rock; anyone who signed it agreed to follow the rules that were made, and in exchange got to help make the rules. They got all the saints to sign it and then just enough non-saints to have 51% of the vote; this way, the saints had the majority of those who could vote.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, he was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world. He came up with the Cambridge Agreement, which said that the entire Massachusetts Bay company had to move to New England; this way, the company would not easily be pressured by the king and investors.
said that if your parents were saints, you could vote in the General Court, but you couldn't participate in church decisions. This law was created because less and less people were becoming saints, because the didn't go to church as much, so they felt like they weren't worthy enough to be a saint.
(5.1) a government in which citizens rule through their elected representatives
(5.1) the idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people
Articles of Confederation
(5.1) a set of laws created by Congress proposing a new type of government, in which two levels of government shared fundamental powers. State governments were supreme in some matters, while the national government was supreme in other matters.
(5.1) an alliance
Land Ordinance of 1785
(5.1) passed by Congress, established a plan for surveying the public lands west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
(5.1) created by Congress, provided a procedure for dividing the northwestern land into territories, and set requirements for the admission of new states.
(5.2) a rebellion by the farmers in 1786-1787 where they marched to close the courts, and then toward Springfield. They were angry because they thought they were getting taxed too much and their farms were being foreclosed.
(5.2) A Virginian, member of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, known as the "Father of the Constitution."
(5.2) a political leader from Connecticut who suggested the Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention
(5.2) a government system proposed by Roger Sherman; it created a two-house Congress. The upper house was the Senate, in which each state had equal representation. The lower house was the House of Representatives, in which voters of each state would choose members, and each state had a different number of representatives depending on their population.
(5.2) an agreement at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of a states slaves could be counted as population. This was used to determine how many representatives a state got in the House of Representatives.
(5.2) a system of government in which power is divided between the national and state governments
(5.2) the branch of government that makes laws
(5.2) the branch of government that carries out laws
(5.2) the branch of government that interprets laws
checks and balances
(5.2) a system established by the delegates at the Constitutional Convention to prevent one government branch from dominating the others
(5.2) a system created by the delegates at the Constitutional Convention. Instead of voters choosing the president directly, each state would choose a number of electors equal to the number of senators and representatives the state had in Congress. These electors would cast ballots for the candidates.
(5.3) official approval (to get this for the Constitution, they needed the agreement of 9 states)
(5.3) supporters of the Constitution. they were called this because they favored the new Constitution's balance of power between the states and the national government.
(5.3) people against the Constitution. they opposed such a strong central government.
(5.3) a series of 85 essays defending the Constitution; appeared in New York newspapers between 1787 and 1788. Published under pseudonym "Publius," but actually written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay
Bill of Rights
(5.3) the first ten amendments to the Constitution; these were made to protect peoples' rights, and many states refused to ratify the Constitution until it was added.
Judiciary Act of 1789
(6.1) This law provided for a Supreme Court consisting of a chief justice and five associate justices. It also set up 3 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courts throughout the country. (The number of justices and courts increased over time.) One of the most important provisions of the law allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised.
(6.1) first secretary of the treasury
(6.1) the president's chief advisors
Bank of the United States
(6.1) national bank proposed by Hamilton, funded by both the federal government and wealthy private investors. some thought the bank would forge an unhealthy alliance between the government and wealthy business interests.
(6.1) the ancestors of todays Democratic party, believed in Jefferson's idea of a stronger state government
(6.1) the system started by the split in Washington's cabinet, caused by the disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson, in which there are two political parties.
(6.1) an import tax passed by Congress on goods produced in Europe. It was meant to encourage American production and brought in a great deal of revenue.
(6.1) a tax on a product's manufacture, sale, or distribution. Hamilton pushed through one on the manufacture of whiskey. This cause the Whiskey Rebellion.
A Dutch reform minister who tried to move listeners emotionally. He helped start the Great Awakening.
A minister who started the log college to teach people how to preach. Later founded Princeton.
(6.2) The U.S.'s position in the French Revolution
(6.2) a French diplomat sent to win American support, tried to recruit Americans to fight in the French Revolution and got in trouble for that. Eventually became U.S. citizen.
(6.2) U.S. minister to Great Britain, met with Spain and signed his treaty of 1795, in which Spain agreed to give the U.S. all claims east of the Mississippi (except Florida) and agreed to open the Mississippi River to traffic by U.S. citizens and allow American traders to use the port of New Orleans.
(6.2) chieftain of the Miami tribe, defeated General Josiah Harmar's troops in 1790, in a battle fighting over land in the Northwest. They also defeated General Arthur St. Clair's army. The chief then urged his people to seek peace, when General Anthony Wayne became leader of the army. He was replaced by a less able leader because the other chiefs did not agree with him, and this lead to the Miami Confederacy's defeat at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
(6.2) chief-justice of the Supreme Court. He negotiated a treaty with Britain which said that they would evacuate their posts in the Northwest Territory, but they were still allowed to continue their fur trade in America.
(6.2) the practice of placing the interests of one region over those of the nation as a whole
(6.2) An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. This led to an outrage in the American public and a wave of anti-French feeling.
Alien and Sedition Acts
(6.2) four measures that Federalists pushed through Congress to counter foreigners whom they saw as a growing threat to the government. These measures increased the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years, allowed the president to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable, and set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder the operation of the government or expressing "false, scandalous, and malicious statements" against the government. This led to outrage by Democratic-Republicans when many Democratic-Republican editors were put in jail.
(6.2) the principle that states have the right to nullify, or consider void, any act of Congress that they deemed unconstitutional
Lewis and Clark
(6.2) the expedition commissioned by President Jefferson to explore the West. traveled from St. Louis, Missouri overland to the Pacific Ocean.
(6.2) running mate to Jefferson. Got same number of electoral votes as him, so House of Representatives was made to decide. Jefferson eventually won because Hamilton convinced enough Federalists to cast blank vote so that Jefferson had majority. he became vice president.
He later got into a duel with Hamilton and killed him.
(6.2) a staunch Federalist appointed by John Adams as chief justice of the Supreme Court. He served on the Court for more than 30 years, handing down decisions that would strengthen the power of the Supreme Court and the federal government.
Judiciary Act of 1801
(6.2) an act by John Adams just before he left office increasing the number of federal judges by 16. He then filled most of these positions with Federalists. This angered Democratic-Republicans.
(6.2) the judges Adams appointed late on the last day of his administration, after he passed the Judiciary Act of 1801.
Marbury v. Madison
(6.2) the Supreme Court decision in which William Marbury, one of the midnight judges, sued James Madison for never delivering his official papers to be a Supreme Court judge. He tried to get the Supreme Court to order that the papers be delivered, but Chief Justice Marshall decided that this was unconstitutional because the Constitution didn't empower the Court to do this. This was the first time the Supreme Court declared something unconstitutional.
(6.2) the ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
(6.2) the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon for $15 million. it included all the land drained by the western tributaries of the Mississippi, so the US's size more than doubled.
(6.2) a Shoshone woman who served as an interpreter and guide for the Lewis and Clark expedition
(6.2) a war measure in which one side seals up the other's ports and prevents ships from entering or leaving. Great Britain did this to Napoleon's Europe in 1806.
(6.2) the practice of seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into the British navy
(6.2) a ban on exporting products to other countries. Jefferson convinced Congress to declare one in order to hurt Britain and the other European powers and force them to honor American neutrality. This actually hurt America more than it hurt Britain.
William Henry Harrison
(6.2) a general and governor of the Indiana Territory, invited several Native American chiefs to Fort Wayne, Indiana in 1809, and persuaded them to sign away 3 million acres of tribal land to the US government.
(6.2) a Shawnee chief who believed that the only way for Native Americans to protect their homeland against intruding white settlers was to form a confederacy, a united Native American nation. He negotiated with the British for assistance in a war with the Americans.
(6.2) a group of young congressmen from the South and the West who called for war against Britain when they found out that Shawnee had been aided by British Canada in attacking Harrison's troops.
(6.2) a general from Tennessee who won a series of battles in the war of 1812 that gained him national fame. He defeated Native Americans of the Creek tribe at the battle of Horseshoe Bend in March of 1814. His greatest victory, however, was after the war was over, when he defeated a superior British force at the Battle of New Orleans.
Treaty of Ghent
(6.2) the peace agreement between Britain and the US after the War of 1812. They declared an armistice.
(6.2) an agreement to stop fighting (in a war)
Dominion of New England
the new, vast colony created by James II in 1686. He united the land from southern Maine to New Jersey into this colony, placing the colonies under a single ruler in Boston. He made Sir Edmund Andros the ruler. This angered the colonists. After James II was replaced with William and Mary, William got rid of this colony and gave all the colonies new charters. He did consolidate some of them somewhat, though.
became prime minister of England in 1763
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for and tax the colonies in all cases. Most colonists didn't really care; they were just happy the Stamp Act got repealed.
Passed by Parliament in 1774 in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. It closed the port of Boston until Boston paid for the tea and apologized.
Mason Locke Weems
wrote one of the 1st biographies of George Washington; was pretty much just made up. Made up the story about the cherry tree.
"Father of American History," said that democracy was making its first steps into the world with the American Revolution. Supported the Whig theory.
people who reinterpreted traditional interpretations of the American Revolution (one of the "schools of thought" Tom talked about)
one of the Revisionist schools of thought; believed that the colonies had grown up in salutary neglect, so they had to learn to fend for themselves. Later, England better learned how to run an empire, but by this time the colonies were already developing toward nationhood.
one of the Revisionist schools of thought. They believed that as the British empire grew, their ambitions grew, and they wanted to profit from the colonies. However, the colonies' economy had been growing, too, and they wanted to profit as well. They said there were 2 revolutions: the first was a contest between the elite leaders of the colonies and those of England; they were just trying to protect their own economic interests. The American elite then got the support of the commoners by saying that Britain was violating their liberty and representative government. This created the second revolution, that of the commoners protesting against England.
? one of the schools of thought. Neorevisionists.
one of the schools of thought, based on the beliefs of an English historian who said that the British government was corrupt and incompetent.
one of the schools of thought, said that the American Revolution was a fight against despotism. They used George Washington as an example, saying that he he didn't have anything to gain by leading a bunch of rebels.
Sir Edmund Andros
appointed by James II as governor of the Dominion of New England. Was strict about enforcing laws; the colonists hated him.