Federal Government: Chapters 1-3,6-7

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The belief that you can influence how your government acts is called

political efficacy

What is the principle difference between an autocracy and an oligarchy?

the number of people in charge

Which of the following is not an example of a totalitarian regime?

the United Kingdom

Direct democracy is best defined as

a system that allows citizens to vote directly for laws and policies

A representative democracy is a system of government that

gives citizens a regular opportunity to elect top government officials

Which of the following is an instrument of direct democracy?

initiatives

At the time of the Founding, approximately ___ percent of non-Native American inhabitants of the thirteen states were of European ancestry.

80

Throughout American history, the concept of liberty has been linked to

the idea of limited government

According to the text, what were the essential documents of the American Founding?

the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution

The Bill of Rights was designed to protect

liberty

In American political culture, economic freedom means

laissez-faire capitalism

The right of each citizen to vote is an example of

political equality

The Constitution's Preamble, beginning with the words "We the People," is an illustration of what principle?

popular sovereignty

The belief that political authority should rest with the people themselves is called

popular sovereignty

Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education reveal two very different visions of what political value?

equality

T/F: Over the past several decades, the public's belief that the government is responsive to the people has declined.

True

T/F: Recent polls reveal that more than three-fourths of Americans know the name of the current speaker of the House.

False

T/F: The most important thin for a citizen to possess is political knowledge.

True

T/F: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union are both examples of autocracies.

True

T/F: When a single ruler controls all government power, it is called an oligarchy.

False

T/F: Constitutional democracies were often found throughout ancient Greece.

False

T/F: Parliaments began in Europe as institutions for aristocrats.

True

T/F: The proletariat was the key social force leading to limited government during the eighteenth century.

False

T/F: The referendum is a form of direct democracy.

True

T/F: Because of the United States' diversity of races, ethnicities, and religions, Americans do not share a common political culture.

False

T/F: The principle of "one person, one vote" summarizes the idea of liberty.

False

T/F: The United States has never accepted the principle of popular sovereignty.

False

T/F: Many of the most critical dilemmas of American politics involve conflicts over the way commonly held values are put into practice.

True

T/F: Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board Education are both Supreme Court cases dealing with the meaning of equality.

True

T/F: Property restrictions on the right to vote were eliminated in 1920.

False

According to the text, which sector of society did not have interests that were important to colonial politics?

slaves

Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?

"No taxation without representation"

Who defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre?

John Adams

Who orchestrated the Boston Tea Party?

Samuel Adams

Under the Articles of Confederation, it was left to the ___to execute the laws passed by Congress.

states

According to the text, the writing of the Constitution demonstrates the

marriage of interests and principles

The Three-Fifths Compromise

determined that three out of every five slaves would be counted for purpose of representation and taxation

The ability of the president to veto a bill passed by Congress is a good example of what principle of limited government?

checks and balances

The three branches of government created by the Constitution are

executive, legislative, and judicial

Which of the following was a way the framers tried to make the Senate a check against excessive democracy?

The Senate has staggered terms of office

What is the term length of a federal judge?

barring impeachment, life

Procedures outlining how to amend the Constitution are found in Article

V

The supremacy clause

announces that the Constitution and all laws made under it are superior to any state laws

Whose "political gospel" inspired the framers to adopt the concept of the separation of powers?

Montesquieu

Brutus and Federal Farmer are two pseudonyms used by the

Antifederalists

The Boston Tea Party started as a reaction to the British imposing an embargo of tea and coffee trade on the colonies

False

The Declaration of Independence was the United States' first governing constitution

False

The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and a loose alliance of nearly independent states

True

The Virginia Plan would have created a federal legislature where representation was based solely on the population of each state

True

The Great Compromise resulted in a bicameral legislature

True

The Three-Fifths Compromise stated that no more than three out of every five states could be slave states.

False

The doctrine of expressed powers means that Congress does not have any powers not listed in the Constitution

True

The office of the president was designed by the framers to be capable of overcoming the inevitable stalemate of the bicameral legislature

True

The Constitution gives Congress the power to recognize other nations, and to accept ambassadors from foreign countries

False

The Constitution expressly gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review over Congress and the President

False

The framers' theory of separation of powers was influenced by Montesquieu's The Spirit of Laws

True

The Federalist Papers argue against the ratification of the Constitution and defined strong state governments

False

The Antifederalists wanted a strong central government that the proposed in the Constitution

False

The Federalists believed that the threat of tyranny was most likely to be found in the popular majorities rather than in a handful of aristocratic persons

True

The Constitution is very difficult to change by amendment

True

The United States, Canada, and Switzerland can all be described as ___systems of government while France can be described as a ___system of government

federal;unitary

The federal system can be best defined as

a system of government in which power is divided between a national government and lower levels of government

The specific powers granted to the national government in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution are called the

expressed powers

What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment?

to limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals

When both state and national governments possess a certain level of authority, it is called

a concurrent power

Which is the best example of a concurrent power under the federal constitution?

the power to regulate commercial activity

The ___clause of the Constitution requires that states should normally recognize the laws, acts, and judicial decisions of other states

full faith and credit

Which clauses of the Constitution involve the relationships among various states?

the full faith and credit clause and the privileges and immunities clause

When Alaska passed a law in the 1970s that gave state residents preference over nonresidents in obtaining work on oil pipelines, this law violated the

privileges and immunities clause

How did the traditional system of dual federalism establish a "commercial republic"?

the function of the federal government was to promote and assist commerce

Which of the following statements about the structure of American federalism is true?

it has contributed to the longevity of the U.S. government by allowing many divisive policy decisions throughout American history to be made by states

What was one effect of dual federalism during the early Republic?

the national government was spared the task of making difficult policy decisions, such as the regulation of slavery, because the states did it themselves

____describes the strategy of delegating a policy program to a lower level of government

devolution

Federal systems are most commonly found in countries that have a highly homogeneous population

False

The Tenth Amendment gives the national government expressed powers over state governments

False

The Antifederalists feared an overly strong central government under the new Constitution

True

The full faith and credit clause demands that the U.S. government run a balanced budget

False

The Constitution guarantees that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state

True

Local governments are not mentioned anywhere in the U.S. Constitution

True

Dual federalism describes the relationship between the national government and the states throughout the nineteenth century

True

McCulloch v. Maryland gave Congress potentially expansive powers for regulating commercial activity

True

Since the New Deal, the Supreme Court has never restricted Congress's power under the commerce clause

False

The Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Lopez expanded the power of Congress outlined in the commerce clause

False

The New Deal led to the weakening of the national government's powers

False

Cooperative federalism ended the Civil War

False

Unfunded mandate refers to the national government imposing regulatory costs on the states without reimbursement.

True

A federal block grant gives states no discretion on how to spend the money

False

In the 1990s, welfare policy was centralized by the national government

False

The various attitudes that citizens possess toward political issues, events, and people are called

public opinions

A political ideology is best defined as

a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government

Liberalism and conservatism are good examples of

political ideologies

The term public opinion is used to describe

people's beliefs and attitudes toward different issues

The complex set of beliefs and values that, as a whole, form a general philosophy about the government is called

political ideology

The difference between a political value and a political attitude is that

values are basic principles while attitudes are specific preferences

Fundamental political values

unify Americans around a common set of goals for the government

Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans believed that gays should have equal employment rights?

89 percent

Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans disagreed with the statement "Any group should be allowed to hold a rally for a cause"?

31 percent

Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans is worried about government monitoring of personal information?

56 percent

During presidential elections, there is often a post-convention__in the popularity of a presidential candidate resulting from increased media attention

bounce

If I decide to support a candidate because I see that he or she is the front-runner in a poll, I become an example of

the bandwagon effect

Which of the following statements best summarizes the findings of studies on the relationship between public opinion and public policy in the United States?

the government's actions are usually in line with the public's preferences but some areas of disagreement always arise

What is an initiative?

a procedure that allows for laws to be placed on a ballot and voted on by the electorate

An important reason for why public policy and public opinion may not coincide in the United States is that

the American system of government includes arrangements, such as an appointed judiciary, which may produce policy decisions that run contrary to prevailing popular sentiment

The United States is a nation without political ideologies

False

Most Americans are unified in their belief in the principles of liberty, equality, and democracy

True

Less than 50 percent of Americans believe that gays should have equal employment rights

False

Families, social groups, and schools are important institutions where people are politically socialized

True

During the formation of an individual's initial political orientation, the influence of family counts for very little

False

Differences in opinion can be influenced by one's gender

True

Level's of education have not been shown to affect one's political opinions

False

Liberal and conservative ideologies are clear and well-defined doctrines of thought

False

Political ideologies do not always provide us with a clear opinion on particular policies

True

Think tanks are not usually important actors in developing and spreading political ideas

False

Interest groups often spend time and money trying to shape public opinion

True

Calling randomly selected phone numbers is a good way for pollsters to reduce sampling errors

True

Push polling is a trend that has been decreasing over the years

False

The illusion of saliency can give politicians the mistaken impression that certain opinions are very important to people

True

Under the United States' political system, public policy will always coincide with the state of public opinion

False

A short, attention-grabbing phrase that summarizes a position is called a

sound bite

Which group has had great popularity on radio talk shows?

conservatives

Whose presidential campaign was the first to rely heavily on the impact of Internet bloggers?

Howard Dean

In 1985, the federal government stopped enforcing the ___, arguing that it was no longer necessary due to the increasing number of television and radio stations

fairness doctrine

The nationalization of the news in the United States has had important political consequences due to

Americans tending to view the world with a similar approach since they are exposed to same concerns and perspectives

Which of the following statements is false?

government censorship plays an important role in determining the particular interpretation of a news story

The most important selection bias in news is

the audience appeal of a story

Reporters have the ability to significantly influence news stories since they

generally demonstrate a great deal of discretion while interpreting the news, giving themselves the opportunity to interject personal views and ideals into their stories

The news media are most responsive to what segment of the population?

the affluent

American print and broadcast media tend to be more responsive to the ___segments of the audience

upscale

Which of the following statements best describes the media's role in the Watergate affair?

the media's relentless investigations revealed various abuses of power by President Nixon and led to his resignation

When media coverage affects the way the public evaluates a political leader in future actions, this effect is called

priming

Which of the following is an important reason why politicians frequently choose to do interviews on talk shows or entertainment programs such as the Oprah Winfrey show?

these shows allow politicians to craft their own images without interference or questions from journalists

During the nineteenth century, newspapers were controlled by

political parties

Which of the following is not a reason why a free media is necessary to democratic government?

a free media is needed to ensure economic equality

Television reaches more Americans than any other single source of news

True

The most important sources for setting a news agenda are newspapers

True

Newspapers are among the most heavily regulated media in the United States

False

Federal rules grant individuals an opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on television or the radio

True

The Federal Communications Commission no longer requires broadcasters who air controversial issues to provide time for opposing views

True

Since the 1980s, the ownership of news media has expanded and fallen into many different hands

False

The Internet has vastly expanded the number of sources of news

True

The national news media tend to cover the same events and emphasize the same issues and problems

True

The United States went to war with Spain in 1898 largely due to the reporting of newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst

True

Most journalists describe themselves as conservative or moderate-to-conservative

False

Broadcast and print media tend to orient their reporting to issues of interest to the lower middle class

False

Political protests are often the only way some groups can attract media attention to their issues and causes

True

Because of their dependence on government sources, the news media are unable to set the agenda of debate

False

Media prophecies on a candidate's momentum in an election often become self-fulfilling

True

Throughout the nineteenth century, political parties controlled and subsidized newspapers

True

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