Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 1 and 3

49 terms by AmyMajewski

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Anatomy

the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another

Physiology

the study of the body and its parts work or function

Levels of organization

atom - molecule - cell - tissue - organs - organ systems

Integumentary system

skin; boundry (separates you from environment)

Skeletal System

bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints; movement (provides framework that skeletal muscles use to provide movement)

Muscular system

muscles; movement (muscles contract to cause movement)

Nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors; responsiveness (body's fast acting control system)

Endocrine system

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries/testes; responsiveness (controls body activity)

Cardiovascular system

heart, blood vessels; carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, etc. to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made

Lymphatic system

lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils; helps cleanse the body and house the cells involved in immunity

Respiratory system

nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs; keeps the body constantly supplied with oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide

Digestive system

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestines, rectum; break down food to basic molecules

Excretory system

kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra; getting rid of cell waste

Reproductive system

scrotum, penis, accessory glands, duct system OR ovary, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina; reproduction

Survival needs

nutrients- source of energy and materials,
oxygen- release energy from food,
water- body chemistry,
temperature- (hot) denature proteins,
atmospheric pressure- without pressure, we cant exchange gas

Homeostasis

"steady state" ability to maintain a stable state of internal conditions

Dynamic Mechanism (3 components)

control center- realizes if something isnt balanced,
receptor- takes info to control center (afferent pathway),
effector- takes info from control center (efferent pathway)

Types of mechanism (2)

positive feedback- increases response,
negative feedback- stops the response and does opposite to balance body

Superior

toward head

Inferior

away from head

anterior

toward front of body

posterior

toward back of body

medial

toward midline of body

Lateral

away from midline of body

Intermediate

between a more medial and a more lateral structure

Proximal

Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a lumb to the body trunk

Distal

Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

Superficial

toward or at body surface

Deep

Away from body surface; more internal

Plane

a cut through the body (section) is made from an imaginary plane

Median sagittal or midsagittal plane

lengthwise (longitudinal), divides body into right and left halves

Frontal (coronal) plane

lengthwise, divides into anterior and posterior

Transverse plane

horizontal (cross section), divides into superior and inferior

Dorsal cavity

well-protected by bone; two divisions:
cranial- space inside scull; brain
spinal- from base of cranial cavity nearly to end of vertebral column; spinal cord

Ventral cavity

less protected by muscle, ribs, pelvis; two divisions
thoracic- superior portion; diaphragm, lungs, heart, etc.
abdominalpelvic- inferior portion; stomach, liver, intestines (abdominal), reproductive organs, bladder, rectum(pelvic)

Tissue

group of cells that are similar in structure or function

Histology

study of tissues; important for diagnosis of disease

Epithelial tissue

covers and lines all body surfaces; functions: protection, absorbtion, filtration, secretion; forms sheets of cells or membranes, no blood supply (can regenerate easily)

Connective tissue

most abundant of tissues, found everywhere; functions: connect to body parts, bind tissues together, protect organs; have living cells in a nonliving matrixm nist are vascular

Muscle tissue

specialized to contact and allow movement of the body and substances in it; elongated cells; three types:
skeletal, smooth, cardiac

Skeletal muscle tissue

long cells (many nuclei), striated, voluntary control

Smooth muscle tissue

Spindle shape (one nucleus), not striated, involuntary control, found in intestines, uterus, blood vessels

Cardiac muscle tissue

branched cells (one nucleus), striated with intercalated disks between cells, involuntary control, found in heart only

Nervous tissue

cells are irritable (able to receive a stimulus), cells are conductive (able to send an impulse), make up the structure of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, nerves, some sensory structures

Neuron

highly specialixed to receive and transmit nerve impulses and supporting cells; important in control of body processes

Cutaneous membrane

epithelial epidermis and connective tissue dermis; covers body exterior (skin); protects deeper body tissues from external insults

Mucous membrane

epithelial sheet underaid by a connective tissue layer called lamina propria; line respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts; protection, lubrication, secretion, absorbtion

Serous membrane

simple squamous epithelium resting on scant layer of fine connective tissue; line internal ventral body cavities and cover their organs; produces a lubricating fluid that reduces friction

Synovial membrane

entirely connective tissue; line joint cavities of synovial joints; produce lubrication to decrease friction with in the joint cavity

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set