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megalithic

A large stone usually connected to early rituals, related to sun and stars, in temples, early history

menhir

a large uncut stone erected as a monument in the prehistoric era

cromlech

a prehistoric megalith typically having two upright stones and a capstone

henge

An arrangement of megalithic stones in a circle, often surrounded by a ditch.

dolmen

A stone tomb formed by two posts capped by a lintel

post and lintel

trabeated, creates doors

paleolithic

second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC

old stone age

mesolithic

Belonging to the period of human culture from about 15,000 years ago to about 7000 BCE characterized by complex stone tools and greater social organization -

neolithic

latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)

wattle and daub

building material consisting of interwoven rods and twigs covered with clay

barrow/tumulus

(archeology) a heap of earth placed over prehistoric tombs

ka

memories follows all through life only gods and goddesses can see

when you die it remains on earth and needs dwelling place

ra

(va) part of you that holds your conscience, grows with you, looks like you

when you die it goes up to heaven and weighed aainst feather of truth and granted eternal life

mastaba

false door, for the dead, RA and KA can get in and out

serdab

false door so KA and RA and gods an goddesses can go in and out

necropolis

a cemetery—literally, a

engaged column

half column, part of another architectural element

pier

(architecture) a vertical supporting structure (as a portion of wall between two doors or windows)

reserved column

Columns that are not structural but are free standing, Has a capital, shaft, and base column.

capital

the upper part of a column that supports the entablature

ben-ben

A pyramidal stone; a fetish of the Egyptian god Re., the emblem of the sun; in the shape of pyramid

Bent Pyramid

ancient Egyptian pyramid located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo, built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu (c. 2600 BC). A unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt, this was the second pyramid built by Sneferu.

ashlar

a rectangular block of hewn stone used for building purposes

rustication

Heavy stonework with a surface left rough, or with deeply channelled joints, used principally on Renaissance buildings

stacking-and-piling

Most of the weight is at the bottom - walls get thinner towards the top.
The structure tapers inward, or narrows, toward the top.
The openings (windows & doors) must be small & few. (The round arch & vault allow for bigger openings.)
The roof is lightweight, such as adobe, wood or thatch.

rock-cut tombs

Because the Great Pyramids were plundered so badly by grave robbers, a new type of architecture known as ____ developed during Middle Kingdom in Egypt.

pylon

The wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls

peristyle

In classical architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porch(es). A peripteral colonnade consists of a single row of columns on all sides; a dipteral colonnade has a double row all around

hypostyle

a large interior room characterized by many closely spaced columns that support its roof

clerestory

Part of a building rising clear of the roofs and whose walls contain windows for lighting the interior.

citadel

A fortress that overlooks and protects a city; any strong or commanding place

labyrinth

complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

fresco

A technique of painting on walls covered with moist plaster. It was used to decorate Minoan and Mycenaean palaces and Roman villas, and became an important medium during the Italian Renaissance.

corbel

a brick or stone projecting from within a wall, usually to support a weight; an overlapping arrangement of bricks or stones in which each course steps upward and outward from the vertical face of a wall

corbelled arch

an arch-like construction method in which masonry courses are corbelled, with each course projecting further out from the course below it, until they meet at the top to span a space or void in a structure

beehive tomb

a type of subterranean tomb of the Mycenaean civilization consisting of a domed chamber entered by a passage through a hillside

tholos

A temple with a circular plan. Also the burial chamber of a tholos tomb, which resembles a beehive

dromos

A passage to a beehive tomb that is often enclosed between stone walls. In ancient Egypt, it was a straight, paved passageway flanked by sphinxes., The corridor-like approach to a Mycenaean tholos tomb entrance.

megaron

The large reception hall and throne room in a Mycenean palace, fronted by an open, two-columned porch, Chief or throne room of the palace in Mycenaean Architecture

doric order

columns stood directly on the flat pavement (the stylobate) of a temple without a base; their vertical shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves; and they were topped by a smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus at the intersection with the horizontal beam (architrave) that they carried. The Parthenon has the Doric design columns. It was most popular in the Archaic Period (750-480 BC) in mainland Greece.

older order

Ionic order

One of the three main orders of classical Greek architecture, characterized by two opposed volutes in the capital.characterized by the use of volutes. The columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform; The cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart.

athens and up

corinthian order

latest of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls.The most ornate of the three main orders of classical Greek architecture, characterized by a slender fluted column having an ornate bell-shaped capital decorated with acanthus leaves.

entasis

In classical architecture, the slight swelling or bulge in the center of a column, which corrects the illusion of concave tapering produced by parallel or straight lines

fluted

having vertical parallel grooves (as in a pillar); V. flute: make long parallel inward curves in; N. flute: long rounded groove incised on the shaft of a column

acroteria

free-standing sculptures standing above corners and the center of the pediment (Greek)

naos

cella, a room with no windows that usually housed the cult statue of the deity

acropolis

A city protected by a hill or mountains was referred to as this in Ancient Greece.

panathenaic procession

was part of a festival in honor of Athena known as the Panathenaea that was held every year in acnient Athens. The procession was held on the last day of the festival, and involved the ritual bringing of a new peplos, or cloak, to the ceremonial statue of Athena. Every fourth year, during the Grand Panathenaea, a giant peplos was presented to Athena inside the Parthenon. every other year, the procession culminated with the presentation of a peplos to the Athena statue inside the Erechtheum.

caryatid

a supporting column carved in the shape of a person

atlas

a figure of a man used as a supporting column, (Greek mythology) a Titan who was forced by Zeus to bear the sky on his shoulders

agora

a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece

Peloponnesian War

(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.

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