Chemistry

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Life

About 25 chemical
96% - C, O, H, N
4% - Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
Others are trace elements (<0.01%)
are all requirements of ____?

Elements

What combines to form compounds?

Polymers

Many large molecules in biological systems are ________.

Monomers

Polymers are long chain-like molecules made up of repeating units called ________.

Dimers

2 monomers joined together = ______.

Trimers

3 monomers joined together = _______.

Polymer

4+ monomers joined together = _______.

Dehydration synthesis

An anabolic building reaction in which monomers are linked together to make a larger molecule occurs via __________ _________ or condensation.

Hydrolysis

A catabolic reaction in which polymers are broken down into individual monomers occurs via __________ or cleavage.

Saccharides

Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called _________.

Carbohydrates

_________ are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharides

There are 3 classes of carbohydrates. One saccharide is a ________, two saccharides is a ________, and many sacchardies joined together are called ______.

Monosaccharides

What are also known as reducing sugars and simple sugars and consist of 5 or 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring?

Monosaccharides

What tastes sweet and are easily soluble in water? And are used for short term energy production?

Monosaccharides

Glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose deoxyribose are all examples of?

Disaccharides

What tastes sweet when added to H2O and is used as a short term energy source?

Disaccharides

sucrose = table sugar
glucose + fructose
Lactose = sugar in milk
glucose + galactose
Maltose = grain products
glucose + glucose
are all major _________.

Dehydration synthesis

When 2 hydrogens and an oxygen atom are eliminated when two glucose molecules (monosaccharides) are joined to make a single molecule of maltose, it is a anabolic condensation reaction called _____ _________.

Hydrolysis reaction

In order to breakdown a disaccharide, water is need in order for it to be broken down into its constituent monosaccharides. This is called a ___ ____.

Polysaccharides

What has various biological functions, including long term energy storage and structural roles?

Glycogen

What is used for long term energy storage in animals?

Glycogen

What is The ONLY complex carbohydrate found in human tissues?

Glycogen

What is synthesized primarily by the liver after meals?

Glycogen

What is stored primarily in the skeletal muscles and liver?

Glycogen

What is catabolized to glucose in response to low blood sugar levels?

Starch

What is long term energy (sugar) storage in plants, stored in tubers and specialized storage organs, and degraded to sucrose for transport when needed

Cellulose

What provides a structural role in plant cell walls, is tough and insoluble, cannot be digested by humans and provides dietary fiber or roughage?

Chitin

What provides a structural role in arthropod exoskeletons and fungi and is very hard and waterproof!

Conjugated

Carbohydrates that are bound to lipid or protein are ______.

Glycolipids

What's in the external surface of cell membrane?

Glycoproteins

What's in the external surface of cell membrane and mucus of respiratory and digestive tracts?

Proteoglycans

What's in the gels that hold cells and tissues together, joint lubrication, and rubbery texture of cartilage?

Hydrophobic

The ability to be insoluble in water is called:

Lipids

_____ are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.

Triglycerides

This lipid is for long term energy storage.

Phosopholipids

This lipid is for primary membrane components.

Steroids and cholesterol

These lipids are for hormone and membrane components.

Eicosanoids

These lipids are chemical messengers.

Waxes

These lipids are for waterproofing and protection.

Fatty acids

What can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated?

Fats

Which triglycerides are solid at room temperature and are from animals?

Oils

Which tryglycerides are liquid at room temperature and are often from plants?

Tryglycerides

What functions as:
long term energy storage
thermal insulation
filling spaces
binding organs/tissues together
and protection/cushioning?

T

90% of fats in foods are triglycerides. T or F.

Glycerol, fatty acids

The glyeride's molecule is made up of 2 components. A head made up of _____ and a tail made up of ___ ____.

Phospholipids

What are the main components of cell membranes?

Membranes

What compartmentalizes cells and provides boundaries between cells?

Phospholipids

______ are lipids which contain a phosphate group and 2 fatty acids.

Polar

A ____ or hydrophilic phospholipid is a phosphate group and a nitrogen containing group attached to glycerol.

Non-polar

A ___-_____ or hydrophobic phospholipid is 2 fatty acid tails.

Steroids

All ________ are derived from cholesterol and have the same basic molecular pattern.

Cholesterol

_______ is important in cell membranes and it is a precursor for
Vitamin D, many hormones and bile salts.

Steroid

_____ hormones play an important role in sexual development and reproduction.

Anabolic

______ steroids are used for medical uses that include treatments for anemia, breast cancer, osteoporosis and some muscle diseases.

Eicosanoids

_______ are derived from arachidonic acid (fatty acid) and are are responsible for hormone-like signals between cells.

Prostaglandins

_____ are produced in all tissues and have a role in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, blood vessel diameter.

Bile acids

What are steroids that aid in fat digestion and nutrient absorption?

Proteins

What is the most diverse group of organic macromolecules?

Amino acids

Proteins are polymers of subunits known as ____ ___.

20

Living things use the same __ amino acids to make all their proteins.

Protein

When making a _____, the amino group from one amino acid and the carboxyl group from a second amino acid come together and molecule of water is eliminated and a peptide bond is formed.

Peptide

What is a polymer of 2 or more amino acids?

Enzyme

Many ____ names end in -ase.

Enzymes

These proteins are inside cells and outside cells in places like your blood stream.

Enzymes

____ make bonds by joining molecules together, break bonds by splitting molecules such as digestive enzymes, and change the structure of molecules.

Substrate

Each enzyme has a specific job and the substance that an enzyme works on are called its ____.

Catalysts

Enzymes are _____, they accelerate reactions or enable them to occur under conditions they normally couldn't.

Active site

The ___ ___ is a specific section of the protein molecule where the substrate binds to the enzyme.

Coenzymes

Vitamins are often ____ that help enzymes to function.

Nucleic acids

____ _____ are polymers made up of monomers known as nucleotides.

Nucleic acids

DNA and RNA are examples of ___ _____.

Nucleic acids

____ ____ store and transfer genetic information.

Nucleotides

Individual ______ have important roles such as energy transfer and cell signaling.

Nucleotides

Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil are bases in ___.

___ is genetic material with a single gene, which contains the information to make a single protein, can consist of a chain of over 6000 nucleotides .

DNA

What is the energy that all life needs?

ATP

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