About 25 chemical
96% - C, O, H, N
4% - Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
Others are trace elements (<0.01%)
are all requirements of ____?
An anabolic building reaction in which monomers are linked together to make a larger molecule occurs via __________ _________ or condensation.
A catabolic reaction in which polymers are broken down into individual monomers occurs via __________ or cleavage.
Monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharides
There are 3 classes of carbohydrates. One saccharide is a ________, two saccharides is a ________, and many sacchardies joined together are called ______.
What are also known as reducing sugars and simple sugars and consist of 5 or 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring?
What tastes sweet and are easily soluble in water? And are used for short term energy production?
sucrose = table sugar
glucose + fructose
Lactose = sugar in milk
glucose + galactose
Maltose = grain products
glucose + glucose
are all major _________.
When 2 hydrogens and an oxygen atom are eliminated when two glucose molecules (monosaccharides) are joined to make a single molecule of maltose, it is a anabolic condensation reaction called _____ _________.
In order to breakdown a disaccharide, water is need in order for it to be broken down into its constituent monosaccharides. This is called a ___ ____.
What has various biological functions, including long term energy storage and structural roles?
What is long term energy (sugar) storage in plants, stored in tubers and specialized storage organs, and degraded to sucrose for transport when needed
What provides a structural role in plant cell walls, is tough and insoluble, cannot be digested by humans and provides dietary fiber or roughage?
What provides a structural role in arthropod exoskeletons and fungi and is very hard and waterproof!
What's in the external surface of cell membrane and mucus of respiratory and digestive tracts?
What's in the gels that hold cells and tissues together, joint lubrication, and rubbery texture of cartilage?
What functions as:
long term energy storage
binding organs/tissues together
Glycerol, fatty acids
The glyeride's molecule is made up of 2 components. A head made up of _____ and a tail made up of ___ ____.
A ____ or hydrophilic phospholipid is a phosphate group and a nitrogen containing group attached to glycerol.
_______ is important in cell membranes and it is a precursor for
Vitamin D, many hormones and bile salts.
______ steroids are used for medical uses that include treatments for anemia, breast cancer, osteoporosis and some muscle diseases.
_______ are derived from arachidonic acid (fatty acid) and are are responsible for hormone-like signals between cells.
_____ are produced in all tissues and have a role in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, blood vessel diameter.
When making a _____, the amino group from one amino acid and the carboxyl group from a second amino acid come together and molecule of water is eliminated and a peptide bond is formed.
____ make bonds by joining molecules together, break bonds by splitting molecules such as digestive enzymes, and change the structure of molecules.
Each enzyme has a specific job and the substance that an enzyme works on are called its ____.
Enzymes are _____, they accelerate reactions or enable them to occur under conditions they normally couldn't.
The ___ ___ is a specific section of the protein molecule where the substrate binds to the enzyme.
___ is genetic material with a single gene, which contains the information to make a single protein, can consist of a chain of over 6000 nucleotides .