About 25 chemical
96% - C, O, H, N
4% - Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
Others are trace elements (<0.01%)
are all requirements of ____?
What combines to form compounds?
Many large molecules in biological systems are ________.
Polymers are long chain-like molecules made up of repeating units called ________.
2 monomers joined together = ______.
3 monomers joined together = _______.
4+ monomers joined together = _______.
An anabolic building reaction in which monomers are linked together to make a larger molecule occurs via __________ _________ or condensation.
A catabolic reaction in which polymers are broken down into individual monomers occurs via __________ or cleavage.
Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called _________.
_________ are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharides
There are 3 classes of carbohydrates. One saccharide is a ________, two saccharides is a ________, and many sacchardies joined together are called ______.
What are also known as reducing sugars and simple sugars and consist of 5 or 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring?
What tastes sweet and are easily soluble in water? And are used for short term energy production?
Glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose deoxyribose are all examples of?
What tastes sweet when added to H2O and is used as a short term energy source?
sucrose = table sugar
glucose + fructose
Lactose = sugar in milk
glucose + galactose
Maltose = grain products
glucose + glucose
are all major _________.
When 2 hydrogens and an oxygen atom are eliminated when two glucose molecules (monosaccharides) are joined to make a single molecule of maltose, it is a anabolic condensation reaction called _____ _________.
In order to breakdown a disaccharide, water is need in order for it to be broken down into its constituent monosaccharides. This is called a ___ ____.
What has various biological functions, including long term energy storage and structural roles?
What is used for long term energy storage in animals?
What is The ONLY complex carbohydrate found in human tissues?
What is synthesized primarily by the liver after meals?
What is stored primarily in the skeletal muscles and liver?
What is catabolized to glucose in response to low blood sugar levels?
What is long term energy (sugar) storage in plants, stored in tubers and specialized storage organs, and degraded to sucrose for transport when needed
What provides a structural role in plant cell walls, is tough and insoluble, cannot be digested by humans and provides dietary fiber or roughage?
What provides a structural role in arthropod exoskeletons and fungi and is very hard and waterproof!
Carbohydrates that are bound to lipid or protein are ______.
What's in the external surface of cell membrane?
What's in the external surface of cell membrane and mucus of respiratory and digestive tracts?
What's in the gels that hold cells and tissues together, joint lubrication, and rubbery texture of cartilage?
The ability to be insoluble in water is called:
_____ are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
This lipid is for long term energy storage.
This lipid is for primary membrane components.
Steroids and cholesterol
These lipids are for hormone and membrane components.
These lipids are chemical messengers.
These lipids are for waterproofing and protection.
What can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated?
Which triglycerides are solid at room temperature and are from animals?
Which tryglycerides are liquid at room temperature and are often from plants?
What functions as:
long term energy storage
binding organs/tissues together
90% of fats in foods are triglycerides. T or F.
Glycerol, fatty acids
The glyeride's molecule is made up of 2 components. A head made up of _____ and a tail made up of ___ ____.
What are the main components of cell membranes?
What compartmentalizes cells and provides boundaries between cells?
______ are lipids which contain a phosphate group and 2 fatty acids.
A ____ or hydrophilic phospholipid is a phosphate group and a nitrogen containing group attached to glycerol.
A ___-_____ or hydrophobic phospholipid is 2 fatty acid tails.
All ________ are derived from cholesterol and have the same basic molecular pattern.
_______ is important in cell membranes and it is a precursor for
Vitamin D, many hormones and bile salts.
_____ hormones play an important role in sexual development and reproduction.
______ steroids are used for medical uses that include treatments for anemia, breast cancer, osteoporosis and some muscle diseases.
_______ are derived from arachidonic acid (fatty acid) and are are responsible for hormone-like signals between cells.
_____ are produced in all tissues and have a role in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, blood vessel diameter.
What are steroids that aid in fat digestion and nutrient absorption?
What is the most diverse group of organic macromolecules?
Proteins are polymers of subunits known as ____ ___.
Living things use the same __ amino acids to make all their proteins.
When making a _____, the amino group from one amino acid and the carboxyl group from a second amino acid come together and molecule of water is eliminated and a peptide bond is formed.
What is a polymer of 2 or more amino acids?
Many ____ names end in -ase.
These proteins are inside cells and outside cells in places like your blood stream.
____ make bonds by joining molecules together, break bonds by splitting molecules such as digestive enzymes, and change the structure of molecules.
Each enzyme has a specific job and the substance that an enzyme works on are called its ____.
Enzymes are _____, they accelerate reactions or enable them to occur under conditions they normally couldn't.
The ___ ___ is a specific section of the protein molecule where the substrate binds to the enzyme.
Vitamins are often ____ that help enzymes to function.
____ _____ are polymers made up of monomers known as nucleotides.
DNA and RNA are examples of ___ _____.
____ ____ store and transfer genetic information.
Individual ______ have important roles such as energy transfer and cell signaling.
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil are bases in ___.
___ is genetic material with a single gene, which contains the information to make a single protein, can consist of a chain of over 6000 nucleotides .
What is the energy that all life needs?