AP Java Ch. 1

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Central Processing Unit (CPU):

The CPU is the component that executes programs and carries out instructions. Everything you see on your computer screen at any given time is being processed by your CPU.

Graphical User Interface

The Graphical User Interface (GUI - "gooey") allows the user to interact with the programs, to the user, the GUI is the program. GUI is the user interface for most modern operating systems and applications* and uses graphical screen elements

Windows

divide the screen into separate work paces

Machine Language

most basic type. Each type of CPU has its own language so something written for Windows 7 can't run on Mac OS X. Machine language is binary and so code isn't easy to read or write.

Assembly Language

next level up, replaces binary digits with mnemonics (short English-type words representing commands or data). Because it is not in binary, this takes slightly longer to run than machine language.

High-level Languages

most programmers use this to write software by using English-like phrases. 1 high-level programming statement can accomplish the equivalent of many machine language instructions. Java is a high-level language, as is C, C++, Ada, and Smalltalk.

Compilers

translates code from one language to another, the original is known as source code, the translated, is know as the target language. Most compilers translate the code only once and normally is translated directly into machine language.

Interpreters

are like compilers but the interpreter does the translation and execution in short bursts. A small part of source code is translated and executed, then another. This technique eliminates the need for a separate compilation phase but it runs more slowly because the translation process occurs during each execution of code

Analog

information is continuous (alcohol thermometer, the alcohol rises in the tube the same time the temperature rises)
· When an analog signal changes it loses the original information

Digital

technology breaks information into pieces and shows those pieces as numbers (the music on a compact disc is stored digitally as a series of numbers, each number representing the needed voltage for a specific instance)
· A digital signal is discrete (the voltage changes dramatically between one extreme and the other) so at any time, the signal can be considered "high" (binary 1) or "low" (binary 0)

sampling rate

To record information digitally, one needs to take many measurements of the information; the number of measurements of information taken per second

Digitizing

when analog information is converted into a digital format by breaking it into pieces

binary numbers

All information in a computer is stored and managed as

bit

A single binary digit is called a bit

base value

The base value of a number system tells us how many digits are available to use and what the place value of each digit in a number is

discrete

A digital signal is discrete (the voltage changes dramatically between one extreme and the other) so at any time, the signal can be considered "high" (binary 1) or "low" (binary 0)

hexadecimal

base 16

Network

two or more computers connected together so they can exchange information

file server

One of the computers on the network that stores programs and data needed for many of the other computers

point-by point connection

when two computer are connected and are close together (every computer is directly connected by wire to every other computer in the network)

network address

identify individual computers on a network

packets

divided messages that are grouped to make it easier to send info across a network (zip-file is an example)

LAN

A LAN is a local area network which is designed for short distances and a limited amount of computers, aka an office, while a WAN is a wide area network designed to connect two or more LAN's across longer distances (aka branches of offices)

The internet

created by the department of defense and ARPA. Stands for internetworking.

protocol

A protocol is a set of rules about how two things communicate. The internet sets a protocol called TCP/IP which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. The IP defines how info is formatted and transferred. The TCP sorts and finds any lost information

IP Address

unique number for every computer connected to the internet. Ex. 204.192.116.2

TLD

TLD- top level domain

programming statements

which execute the program. Java is

object-oreinted

which means that objects make up the basic pieces of the program.

CPU

Central processing unit, the device that executes the individual commands of a program

I/O

Input/ Output devices, allow a person to interact with the computer (keyboard, mouse, monitor)

RAM

Random access memory, basically like main memory (which holds the software while it is being processed by the CPU), data can be both written to it and read from it

ROM

Read only memory, information on ROM can't be changed because it's read only memory (CD ROM)
OS-operating system, the main software of a computer, it does two things, 1. Provide a user interface and 2. manages computer resources (like the CPU and main memory). The OS decides when programs can run, where they are loaded into memory, and how hardware devices communicate (Examples: Windows 7, Max OS X)

GUI

Graphical User Interface

peripheral

almost all devices in a computer system other than the CPU and main memory

binary numbers

number system with a base value of two (only has two digits - 1 and 0)

Hexidecimal Numbers

base 16, uses A-F to represent decimal values 10-15

WAN-

Wide Area Network

BIOS

Basic Input/ Output System

SIMM

Single In- Line Memory Module

VRAM

Video RAM (Video Random Access Memory)

motherboard

the central circuit board

ALU

arithmetic logic unit

pixel

smallest visible screen element, thousands of pixels make up a screen.

firmware

Software that runs products and units of a computer.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

TCP/IP

(Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) Internet software must follow these set of protocols. The IP determines how information is formatted and transferred. The TCP handles out of order or lost pieces of information

browser

A software tool that loads and formats Web documents for viewing.

plugin

A set of software components that adds capabilities to a larger software application

portal

It is basically a links page where you can connect to other websites

HTML

(HyperText Markup Language) It is a Web server where documents are formatted

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