These laryngeal spaces are found at the borders of the ary-epiglottic fold, pharyngeal walls, and the opening of the esophagus
poor laryngeal sensation, reduced pharyngeal contraction
According to Aviv and colleagues, these physilogical features are significant predictors of laryngeal penetration and aspiration
This muscle closes the lips and is critical for preventing food from spilling out of the mouth
This structure acts as a cover to protect the airway during the pharyngeal phase of the swallow
Esophageal and pharyngeal
Which of the four stages of swallowing are primarily reflective?
Oral preparatory and oral
Which of the four stages of swallowing are under volitional control (more or less)?
.75 to 1.25 seconds
How long is the normal duration of swallowing apnea?
Up and forward
What is the normal course of the hyoid bone during the swallow?
Exhalation, apnea, laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal constrictor contraction
According to Klahn and colleagues, the sequence of physiologic events preceeding the swallow is:
Malnutrition, pneumonia, dehydration
These are typical complications of dysphagia.
The space between the lower lip and the teeth is called the _______ ______.
Oral transit time
Time taken from the initiation of the tongue movement to begin the voluntary oral stage of the swallow until the bolus head reaches the point where the lower edge of the mandible crosses the tongue base.
Pharyngeal transit time
The time elapsed from the triggering of the pharyngeal swallow--that is, the onset of laryngeal elevation as part of the swallow--until the bolus tail passes through the cricopharyngeal region or the PE segment.
Oral preparatory stage
This stage of swallowing is designed to break down food into an appropriate consistency for the swallow, mix it with saliva, and bring part or all of the food together in a cohesive bolus ready for the swallow.
This stage consists of lingual propulsion of the bolus through the oral cavity. This phase of the swallow is considered under voluntary control, but plays a role in the triggering of the pharyngeal swallow.
This stage begins when the pharyngeal swallow is triggered as the bolus passes the anterior faucial arch or the base of the tongue, and continues until the bolus passes through the cricopharyngeal region, also known as the upper esophageal segment (UES) or the PE segment.
This stage involves the initial peristalitic wave in the esophageal musculature; cannot be modified by therapy.
Congenital, neurologic, medical, or structural disorder of deglutition that is acute, chronic, or progressive and results in difficulty moving food from the mouth to the stomach.
Anything dark on an x-ray is:
Facial nerve VII
What cranial nerve provides motoric innervation for the lips and cheeks?
How many deciduous (juvienille) teeth do we have?
How many permanent teeth do we have?
These function to provide lateral boundaries for the bolus during chewing and chewing formation; keeps food in the midline
Buccinator and risorius
What are the two critical muscles in the cheeks?
glands imbedded in the mucosal surface in the cheecks, #1 issue in the treatment of oral cancer
Parotid, sublingual, submandibular
What are the three sets of salivary glands?
Holds, manipulates, and propels the bolus through the oral cavity; main articulator; most active of muscles for chewing
These muscles of the tongue alter the tongue shape to hold and propel the bolus
This intrinsic muscle SHORTENS the tongue
This intrinsic muscle ELEVATES THE TIP of the tongue
This intrinsic muscle FLATTENS the tongue.
These muscles of the tongue change tongue position to propel the bolus, and are innervated by CNS IX, X, and XII; include the styloglossus, hyloglossus, genioglossus, palatoglossus
This muscle pulls the tongue back (retracts it)
This muscle depresses and retracts the tongue, and assists in elevating the hyoid bone; also known as the anchor for the hyoid bone
This muscle elevates the tip of the tongue, and produces the central groove
This muscle raises the posterior tongue when the velum is elevated
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines; contact with tongue mechanically forces position change in bolus
When the _______ doesn't _________, there's no hard surface for the tongue to press against; lack of suck; can get food/bacteria in nasal cavity
This muscular structure works with the tongue to form the bolus; prevents nasal regurgitation; elevates during swallow
Palatoglossus, levator veli-palantine, musculus uvulae are the critical muscles of what muscular structure?