Ap Environmental Summer Laws

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Clean Air Acts

The main purpose of this act was to reduce the amount of pollution in the air. The act in 1995 noticed the amount of pollution and saw it was becoming a dilemma. In the act of 1963 it showed the pollution that came from factories and buildings but it did not show the pollution that came from cars and other forms of transportation. In 1990 the new goal of the act was the eliminate pollution that could potentially be toxic to humans and animals.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act (CERCLA)

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act is also known as Superfund. The purpose of this act was to speed up the release of unsafe substances to help protect people. The law wanted to protect people from strongly contaminated toxic waste sites, which have been abandoned.
There are two solutions to this problem which the law allows, short term removal, and a long term correcting action. Short term actions would release substances that would need immediate response. Long term actions have a threat of releasing dangerous substances.

Kyoto Protocol

The purpose of the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gases, which would prevent climate change. This law is governed by global legislation. There are two categories in which the government is separated. The first category is developed countries, often referred to as Annex 1 countries. These countries have accepted greenhouse gas emission reduction. The second category, the developing countries, are often referred to as Non-Annex 1 countries. These countries do not have any greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations. The Annex 1 countries need to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of five percent below their levels in 1990.

Montreal Protocol

This treaty was made to protect the ozone by getting rid of many substances that are believed to be the cause of ruining the ozone. Many of these substances can not be destroyed at once, but they need to be faded out over time.
The atmospheric concentrations of the most important chlorofluorocarbons and related chlorinated hydrocarbons have either leveled off or decreased, because this treaty came into effect. . These substances are believed to be involved in helping global warming. This protocol believes a solution is to destroy hydro-chlorofluorocarbons by 2030, but is not placing any restriction on hydro-fluorocarbons. Because chlorofluorocarbons are equally powerful as greenhouse gases, the replacement of hydro-fluorocarbons for chlorofluorocarbons does not significantly raise the rate of anthropogenic global warming. Yet a current use of these substances can potentially become a threat to human health.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

The purpose of this law is to ensure that international trade of wildlife animals and plants would not threaten their survival. This law helps protect more than thirty three thousand animals and plants with the various degrees they travel in.
The trade of these species is estimated to be worth billions of dollars. There are many different wants of this trade. Some want animals and others want what the animals and plants produce, like leather goods, instruments, and medicine.

Endangered Species Act

The purpose of the Endangered Species act is to protect species and their ecosystems. Opponents of the endangered species act argued that the act may encourage the destruction of habitats, where endangered species live for living residences. Only a few species have become extinct since this law. Over ninety percent of species in the northern part of the US have increased in population size.

Energy Policy Act

The purpose of this act was to inform us we would have energy problems. The act guarantees loans for many types of energy production. The energy policy act made financial improvements for homeowners to make environmentally good changes to their homes. The law has helped make water heating more affordable to many people. The energy policy act also helped the rising demands of fuel efficient vehicles.

Atomic Energy Act

The purpose of this law is to allow the setting of the standards for the use of nuclear substances. The law says the use of these substances would promote the nations defense, and help protect our health. The first time these standards were enforced, was by the Atomic Energy Commission.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)

The Federal food, drug, and cosmetic act is concerned for the safety humans. They are concerned because they labels on products are not fully informative. These products include, prescription and over-the-counter drugs, make-up, medical devices, and all food products with the exception of meat and poultry.
The structure of the current act was established by the original federal food, drug, and cosmetic act of 1938. Since the law began, there are mandatory factory inspections, on items such as drugs, and make-up.

Toxic Substances Control Act

The purpose of this law was to give the Environmental protection agency the ability to report, record, and testing requirements of chemical substances. The law also allows the environmental protection agency to say how they are produced, their importance and how the chemicals are to be disposed.

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996

The purpose of this act was to protect food, and the crops farmers tend to. The law was specially looking to help protect children and infants. The law requires the environmental protection agency to examine the risks of pesticide residue on food, and lower the amount they use on food. They are also required to take into consideration what types of food children eat because the main purpose of this law is to help protect the children and infants. This act would greatly help making food supplies safer for everyone, especially children.

Surfing Mining Control and Reclamation Act

The surfing mining control and reclamation act states that all open and abandoned tunnels, shafts, and entryways are a hazard to our health and they must be closed. This law requires one to have a permit before they begin to mine. They must know what the environmental conditions of the land are and what the land is going to be used for. They must also know what the land will be used for after the mining is finished. This helps the government decided whether or not the intended mining will help the environment. The law also states places where mining is not allowed. Some of these restricted places include national parks.

The Emergency Planning & Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)

The purpose of the emergency planning and community right-to-know act is to promote emergency planning efforts at the state and local levels. This law also provides governments with information about potential chemical hazards in their communities.
Each state has a state emergency response commission. This commission is appointed by the governor. There are local planning committees that develop responses to emergencies for local communities. This act came about so that we are able to prepare ourselves if there were ever an emergency concerning hazardous substances.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

This law created rules to increase safety and illness at work, to prevent injuries, illnesses, and deaths. The occupational safety and health act created the occupations safety and health administration, which stated that states could run their own form of safety and health enforcement as long as it was as effective as the federal administration. Although this act has helped many people it does not cover those people who are self-employed or farms run by families, for example.

The Oil Pollution Act of 1990

The purpose of this act is to stop oil pollution by creating capabilities for oil spill response and natural resource damage assessment. To help stop the pollution the law requires all drivers and staff members to be drug and alcohol tested.
Coast Guards are put in charge of checking ships that come in from other countries. Once this act was developed, the average oil spill went down fifty percent from the levels tested in 1991.

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

The purpose of this law was to determine the difference between hazardous waste and less hazardous waste. To determine the difference between these two types of waste, hazardous waste must fall under the category of hazardous waste. Characteristics of this waste include toxic substances for example and are designated with the code "D". The act gave restrictions on the land used for disposal, and how to transport hazardous waste.

US Clean Water Act (CWA)

The purpose of this law was to stop water pollution, therefore stopping water from being contaminated with toxic substances. This law required the environmental protection agency to set standards for industries based on pollution control technology. The Act allowed the use of water as long as it met the technology-bases standards. A permit must be obtained to release any harmful substances into other waters. The good water that is used by humans must be cleaned from oils, and debris in order to meet standards.

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

The purpose of the law is to make sure the water we consume is healthy for us, and the sources we get our water from are clean as well. This act came about because there are so many harmful substances that can potentially get into the water we drink. These threats to our water and be natural or man made substances. Both can contaminate our dinking water equally. The water we drink must be cleaned and disinfected because if it is not there will be a serious threat to out health

The Ocean Dumping Act

The purpose of this law is to stop the pollution of the ocean by making it illegal to dump sewage in our ocean. The environmental protection agency plans to completely stop all dumping of sewage into oceans. The environmental protection agency came up a schedule which they believe will stop the pollution all together.

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