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Joint

the sites where two or more bones meet

Synarthrosis

immobile

Amphiarthrosis

slightly mobie

diarthrosis

freely movable

fibrous joints

bones joined by fibrous tissues; no joint cavity

sutures

seams between bones of the skull

syndesmosis joint

bones connected by a ligament

gomphosis joint

peg in socket

cartilaginous joints

bones joined by cartilage; no joint cavity

synchondrosis joint

bar/plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones

symphysis joint

articular surface of bone covered in hyaline cartilage which is fused to plate of fibrocartilage; provides strength and flexibility

synovial joints

those in which in the articulating bones are separated by a fluid- containing joint cavity

ligaments

band of fibrous CT that connects bone to bone

tendons

chords of dense fibrous CT that connect bone to muscle

bursae

flattened fibrous sacs; lined with synovial membrane; filled with fluid

tendon sheath

elongated bursae that wrap completely around a tendon subjected to friction

collateral and cruciate ligaments in the knee

2 and 2; anterior/posterior cruciate prevent anterior/posterior displacement; tibial/fibial collateral; most complicated joint in the body

Rotator cuff

encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule

ligament teres

ligament at the head of the femur, flat intracapsular band; unclear function; contains artery that supplies the head of the femur

Flexion

decreases the angle of the joint; brings articulating bones together

dorsiflexion

lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin

extension

reverse of flexion; increases the angle between articulating bones

hyperextension

extension beyond upright position

plantar flexion

depressing the foot and pointing the toes

abduction

movement of a limb away from the midline

adduction

movement of a limb toward the midline

circumduction

movement of a limb so that it describes a cone in space

rotation

the turning of a bone around its own axis; medial or lateral

supination

palm or face up

pronation

palm or face down

inversion

foot turning medially

eversion

foot turning laterally

protraction

nonangular anterior movements in a transverse plane

retraction

nonangular posterior movements in a transverse plane

sprain

stretching or tearing of the ligaments reinforcing a joint

dislocation

bones forced out of alignment; sprain, inflammation, joint immobilization

subluxation

partial dislocation of a joint

bursitis

inflammation of the bursa due to a blow or friction

tendonitis

inflammation of tendon sheaths due to overuse

arthritis

inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the joints; widespread and crippling; bacterial, autoimmune, wear and tear

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