Biology Ecology Part 1

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9th grade Biology Honors Mr. Seally

abiotic

non-living

autotroph

an organism that makes its own food

biodiversity

the variety of species living within an ecosystem

biomass

total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level

biosphere

the part of earth where life exists

biotic

living

carnivore

organism that obtains energy by eating animals

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

commensalism

a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited

community

a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

competition

the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

consumer

an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms

decomposer

an organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter

ecological succession

gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance

ecology

scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

ecosystem

living and nonliving things in an environment, together with their interactions

energy pyramid

a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web

environment

the area in which something exists or lives

food chain

a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

food web

a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem

habitat

the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives

herbivore

plant-eating animal

heterotroph

an organism that cannot make its own food

host

a living thing that provides a source of energy for a virus or an organism

limiting factors

environmental factors that restrict population growth

mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship

niche

organism's role, or job, in its habitat

parasite

an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant)

population

group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

predator

any animal that lives by preying on other animals

prey

animal hunted or caught for food

primary consumer

consumer that feeds directly on producers

producer

an organism that makes its own food

scavenger

an organism that feeds on dead or decaying material

secondary consumer

consumer that eats primary consumers

symbiosis

relationship in which two species live closely together

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