Two types of nonverbal communication
kinesics and proxemics
body language, facial expressions
movement = kinetic
distance, eye contact
proximate = distance
tone, pitch, volume of speech
Three ways of communication
verbal, nonverbal and paralinguistics
6 universal emotional expressions
happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust
facial feedback hypothesis
physical facial emotional displays lead to emotion being felt
facial feedback hypothesis: pencil in mouth
people with a pencil in teeth were happier then people with pencil in between lips
Facial feedback hypothesis: hand in water
people put hand is ice water and was asked how painful it was, half the people that weren't allowed to show emotion were in less pain and able to keep hand in water longer
first impressions tend to stick, een when wrong
primacy = first impression
implicit personality theories
good the hold general rules that certain traits are associated, it allows us to fill in the planks and make quick impressions
a person with a positive trait is assumed to have other positive traits and as we learn new information we interpret it in the most positive way
how people explain the causes of behavior
Father of attributions?
2 types of attributions
internal attributions (personal)
external attributions (situational)
Kelley's Covariation Theory
when making attributions we look at three types of information:
consensus, distinctiveness, consistency
Kelley's Covariation theory: consensus
do other people react the same way in this situation?
Kelley's Covariation theory: distinctiveness
does the person act the same way in other situations?
Kelley's Covariation Theory: consistency
does the person do the same thing on other occasions
Kelley's Covariation Theory: High in all three factors?
something to do with an external attribution
Kelley's Covariation Theory: Low consensus & distinctiveness, high consistency
something to do with an internal attribution
Kelley's Covariation Theory: Low consensus & consistency, high distinctiveness
something to do with that particular situation
fundamental attribution error
ignore situational overestimate internal influences
we tend to attribute our own behaviors to external, situational factors
we tend to attribute others' behaviors to internal factors
people tend to make internal attributions for positive outcomes and negative outcomes on eternal causes
why we use self-serving bias?
protection of self esteem
Illusion of control
we overestimate our control over events, and underestimate the role of chance or uncontrollable factors
-people don't like randomness
-things happen to certain people because of who they are
the spotlight effect
overestimate the extent to which our appearances and actions are noticed by other people "bad hair days"
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