PN1300 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

198 terms by njhaas

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

2-5 YEARS

Scalp hair grows for how long, then follicle becomes inactive.

50

Approx how many hairs are lost each day?

100

sustained hair loss of more than ____ hairs a day, indicates something is wrong.

1 HOUR

Significant damage CAN occur in ___ ____ of unrelieved pressure.

3 DAYS

It is normal to experience pain in a surgical incision wound for approx how many days? (Sudden increase in pain & changes in appearance of the wound need to be reported immediately.)

ALBUMIN

This is a measure of the client's protein reserves (measured in the blood): if this is decreased, the client will have decreased resources of protein for wound healing.

ALOPECIA

Partial or complete baldness or loss of hair. Can be caused by illness, malnutrition, meds & chemo. Can be treated w/Rogaine, but when the drug is stopped, the hair growth stops.

ANGIOGENESIS

formation of new blood vessels, begins within hours after the injury. New endothelial cells build a new vessel.

ANGIOMA

Benign vascular tumor involving skin & subcutaneous tissue; most are congenital. Commonly known as birthmarks. Can be strawberry birthmarks or dark red/purple patches (port-wine angiomas).

APPOCRINE GLANDS

These glands are found in the axillae, anal region, scrotum & labia major. They secrete an organic substance that is odorless until it mixes with skin bacteria.

ATROPHY

These are categorized as "Above the Surface" skin condition. Thinning of the skin surface and loss of markings. Ex: Striae (stretch marks), aged skin.

AVASCULAR SCAR

This type of scar is white because it lacks a blood supply.

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

This is the most frequent type of skin cancer, arises from basal cell layer of epidermis. Sun exposure, poor tanning ability & facial x-rays for acne are risk factors. Metastasis is rare. Surgical removal cures this type of cancer.

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

This is the most common form of skin cancer. Found on face & upper torso, scaly in appearance, waxed rolled edges, depressed center. Metastasis is rare. Surgical removal cures this type of cancer.

BEAUE'S LINES

These are white lines across the nail, seen with acute severe illness, malnutrition or trauma.

BLANCHING

White color of the skin when pressure is applied

BULLAE

This is the same as a vesicle (accumulation of fluid between the upper layers of skin, containing serous fluid), only greater than 0.5 cm. Ex: Contact dermatitis, large second-degree burns, bullous impetigo & pemphigus

CALLOGEN

This is the most abundant protein in the body & is the material of tissue repair.

CAUSE, CLEANLINESS & DEPTH

These (3) are commonly used classification systems for wound classification.

CHILDHOOD

Most of the long-term skin damage from sun exposure occurs during_____, because the ability of the skin to tan is not fully developed until the teenage years.

CLUBBING

this occurs (in the nails) when long-standing hypoxia is present, particularly with cyanotic heart disease & advanced COPD. Will have a nail angle of at least 180 degrees.

CONDUCTION

Heat is transferred from warmer surfaces to cooler ones. Ex: cool washcloth. This type of heat loss is called what?

CRUST

These are categorized as "Above the Surface" skin condition. Dried serum, blood or pus on the surface of the skin. Ex: Impetigo, acute exzematous inflammation.

CYANOSIS

Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes observed in lips, nail beds, & earlobes

CYST

This is an encapsulated fluid-filled or semi-solid mass in the sub-Q tissue or dermis. EX: Sebaceous cyst, epidermoid cyst.

DEBRIDE

To remove dead or damaged tissue or foreign material from a wound

DEFENSIVE PHASE

aka Inflammatory Phase (of wound healing): this occurs immediately after injury & lasts 3-4 days. Hemostasis & inflammation occurrs during this phase.

DERMIS

This is dense, irregular connective tissue composed of collagen & elastic fibers, blood & lymph vessels, nerves, sweat & sebaceous glands & hair roots.

DERMIS

Intradermal injections, such as TB skin test are given in the ________.

APPEARANCE & DRAINAGE

When assessing this in a wound, you include: General description of color of wound & surrounding area & present phase of healing. You also document the amount, color, location, odor & consistency of any drainage.

ECCHYMOSIS

Large, irregular hemorrhagic area on the skin; also called a bruise

ECCRINE GLANDS

These are found in the skin, over most of the body surface. They produce sweat and help in the cooling process.

ELECTROLYTES

Loss of fluid and _____ can lead to shock, circulatory collapse & death.

EPIDERMIS

This is a layer of squamous epithelial cells. Most of the cells are keratinocytes that produce a tough, fibrous protein called keratin.

EROSION

This is categorized as a "Below the Skin Surface" condition. Loss of epidermis. Ex: Ruptured chickenpox vesicle.

ERYTHEMA

Redness of the skin due to increased blood flow to the area

ESCHAR

Dry, dark, leathery scab composed of denatured protein

EXCORIATION

This is categorized as a "Below the Skin Surface" condition. Loss of epidermal layers exposing the dermis. Ex: Abrasion.

EXUDATE

Material, fluid, and cells slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels.

EXUDATE

This may vary in composition, but has similar functions. Dilution of toxins, Transport of leukocytes and plasma proteins & Transport of bacterial toxins, dead cells, debris & other products of inflammation away from the site.

EPIDERMIS, DERMIS, SUBCUTANEOUS

What are the three layers of the skin?

EVAPORATION

As moisture on skin dries, the body is cooled. This is called what?

FISSURE

This is categorized as a "Below the Skin Surface" condition. Linear crack in the epidermis that can extend into the dermis. Ex: chapped hands or lips, athlete's foot.

FRICTION

Force of two surfaces moving against one another

GRANULATION TISSUE

Delicate connective tissue consisting of fibroblasts, collagen, and capillaries

GRANULATION TISSUE

Repair (of a wound) begins as this type of tissue and grows inward from surrounding healthy connective tissue. This is filled with new capillaries.

HAIR

This is composed of dead epidermal cells that begin to grow & divide in the base of the hair follicle. As they push toward the surface, they become keratinized and die.

HAIR

This protects the scalp from ultraviolet rays, cushions blows to the head. Prevents foreign particles from entering eyes and nostrils & external ear canal.

PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY INTENTION

What are the three types of healing?

HEMORRHAGIC EXUDATE

Discharge that has a large component of red blood cells

HEMOSTASIS

Cessation of bleeding, occurs by vasoconstriction of large blood vessels in the affected area. Platelets aggregate to form a platelet plug & stop the bleeding. Results in formation of fibrin & fibrinous meshwork and forms clot and initial wound closure.

HYPERTHERMIA

Condition in which the core body temperature rises above 106 degrees F.

HYPOTHERMIA

Condition in which the core body temperature drops below 95 degrees F.

INFLAMMATION

This is a nonspecific cellular response to tissue injury & involves both vascular & cellular responses. Stimulates release of histamine (from mast cells) serotonin & completment & kinins. Results in increased blood flow & leakage of serous fluid into surrounding tissues. Transports leukocytes to area to participate in phagocytosis. Removes debris of battle.

CONFUSED & COMATOSE

Hyperthermia can cause a person to be _____ and then ______.

CONFUSED & DISORIENTED

The client who is hypothermic may become ____ and ______.

FIBROBLASTS

What are the most important cells in the Reconstructive (proliferative) phase. These cells synthesize and secrete collagen.

FLUID FILLED CAVITIES

Vesicle, pustule, bullae & cyst are this category of skin condition.

HEMATOMA

Localized collection of blood underneath the tissue. Appears as a reddish blue swelling or mass.

EXTERNAL HEMORRHAGE

This is detected when the surgical dressing becomes saturated with sanguineous drainage.

HEMORRHAGE

This is abnormal and may indicate a slipped surgical suture, a dislodged clot, or erosion of a blood vessel. Swelling in the area around the wound or affected body part AND the presence of sanguineous, bloody, drainage from the surgical drain may indicate internal bleeding. Risk is greatest during the first 24-48 hours after surgery.

HEMORRHAGIC EXUDATE

aka Sanguineous Exudate. This has a large component of RBC's because of capillary damage. This is usually present with severe inflammation. Color is bright red verses dark red. This reflects whether the bleeding is fresh or old.

HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK

this presents with decreased blood pressure, rapid thread pulse, increased respiratory rate, diaphoresis, restlessness & cool clammy skin.

HOMEOSTASIS

this is a state of internal constancy of the body.

INFECTION

Bacterial wound contamination is one of the most common causes of altered wound healing. This is referred to as:

CLINICAL INFECTION

This may happen and become apparent 2-11 days postoperatively. It slows the healing by prolonging the inflammatory phase of healing.

HEALING

Age, oxygenation, smoking, diabetes, nutrition, hemorrhage & infection are all factor that affect what?

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

This is an external covering of the body. It performs the vital function of protecting internal body structures from harmful microorganisms and substances.

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

this system is composed of skin, hair, scalp, nails & mucous membranes.

INFLAMMATION

Nonspecific cellular response to tissue injury

INTENTIONAL

These wounds occur during treatment or therapy. Usually made under aseptic conditions. Ex: Surgical incisions & venipunctures.

ISCHEMIA

Oxygen deprivation, usually due to poor perfusion

JAUNDICE

Yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera, mucous membranes and body fluids that occurs when the liver is unable to fully remove bilirubin from the blood

KELOID

Abnormal growth of scar tissue that is elevated, rounded, and firm with irregular, clawlike margins. Can be removed surgically, but will most likely come back.

KERATIN

tough, fibrous protein produced by cells in the epidermis called keratinocytes

KERATINIZATIN

As cells move from deeper epidermal layers to the surface, they undergo a process called _____ in which they become filled with keratin, thus hardening the outer layer of epidermal cells.

KERATINIZATIN

This creates a barrier between bacteria & foreign material and the skin.

KERATIN

This creates a barrier that repels bacteria & foreign matter and is impermeable to most substances.

KOILONYCHIA

This is also known as "spoon nails", is a sign of iron deficiency anemia, malnutiriton or trauma of the nail bed. The nails are thin & concave.

LESIONS

These should be identified according to type and described regarding color, size & location. Also amount, color, odor & appearance of any drainage that might be present.

LICHENIFICATION

These are categorized as "Above the Surface" skin condition. Layers of skin become thickened and rough as a result of rubbing over a prolonged period of time. Ex: chronic contact dermatitis.

HANDS & FEET

What parts of the body, subjected to friction & pressure, contain larger amounts of keratin, which result in thickened skin & calluses

LIPOMA

Benign tumor consisting of mature fat cells

MACULE

These are localized changes in skin color of less than 1 cm in diameter. Freckle (Mac has freckles)

MATURATION PHASE

This is the final stage of (wound) healing. Begins about 21st day and may continue for up to 2 years. During this phase the scar tissue is remodeled. Scar tissue is weaker than the tissue it replaces.

MELANIN

Pigment that gives skin its color

MELANOCYTES

The epidermis contain specialized cells that produce melanin. What are these cells called?

MELANOCYTES

These increase in number on the hands & face and cause age spots. Gray hair occurs from a lack of it's production.

MALIGNANT MELANOMA

This type of skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes. It is the most prevelant. Most serious of the 3 types of skin cancer. Begins as a mole of irregular shape. Larger than 6mm and are not uniform in color. Can metastasize to every organ. Use the ABCD rule. Occurs most often on trunk of males and legs on females.

ABCD

A = Asymetric (nor normal shape) B = Borders irregular C = Not uniform in color D = Diameter > 6mm. Acronym for cancerous moles is:

MALIGNANT MELANOMA

What is the most fatal type of skin cancer.

MUCOUS MEMBRANE

This is made of epithelium overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It secretes mucus.

MUCOUS MEMBRANE

This is the lining of the oral & nasal cavities, and tubes of respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary & reproductive systems. They perform absorptive or secretory functions.

NAILS

These are composed of the root , bed and plate. They protect ends of the digits.

NEVI

Pigmented areas in the skin; commonly known as birthmarks or moles. This is pigmented areas in the skin and are aggregations of melanocytes.

NEVUS

A preexisting mole

NODULES

Solid & elevated. Extend deeper than papules into dermis or SubQ tissue. 0.5-2.0 cm. Lipoma, erythema nodosu, cyst, melamoma, hemangioma. (NODULAR CYST)

NONPALPABLE

Macule (freckles) and Patch (vitiligo or pressure ulcer stage 1) are this category of skin condition.

PAIN

This may indicated infection or bleeding after surgery.

PALLOR

Abnormal paleness of the skin, seen especially in the face, conjunctiva, nail beds, and oral mucous membranes

PALPABLE

Papule, nodules, wheal, plaque & tumors are this category of skin conditions.

PAPULE

Solid, elevated lesion less than 0.5 cm in diameter. Warts, elevated nevi, seborrheid keratosis. (Pappy has warts)

PARONYCHIA

This is an infection of the nail caused by bacteria or Candida albicans.

PATCH

Localized changes in skin color of greater than 1 cm in diameter. Vitiligo (white patch), stage 1 of pressure ulcer.

PETECHIAE

Pinpoint hemorrhagic spots on the skin

PLAQUE

solid elevated lesion greater than 0.5 cm in diameter. Psoriasis, eczema

PRIMARY HEALING

this type of healing occurs in wounds have minimal tissue loss and edges that are well approximated (closed). Wound heals with minimal granulation tissue & scaring. There us minimal blood loss. Ex: Surgical wound.

PROTECTION

The first & most important function of the skin is what?

PURULENT EXUDATE

Discharge resulting from infection; also called pus. Can be yellow, brown or green. Occurs with severe inflammation accompanied by infection. Process of pus formation is called suppuration.

PUSTULE

This is a vesicle or bullae that becomes filled with pus, usually describes as less than 0.5 cm in diameter. EX: Acne, impetigo, furuncles, carbuncles, folliculitis.

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS

This can affect the condition of the skin. Skin rashes can be a complication of drug therapy

PYOGENIC BACTERIA

The bacteria that produce puss are referred to as:

RADIATION

This is the primary means of heat loss. As body heat increases, the arterioles in dermis dilate, bringing body heat to surface. Waves of heat are released to the environment. To conserve heat, arterioles contract to decrease flow of blood to surface, decreasing heat lost by this method.

RECONSTRUCTIVE PHASE

aka Proliferative Phase of wound healing. Begins on 3rd or 4th day after injury & lasts for 2-3 weeks. Process of collagen deposition, angiogenesis, granulation tissue development & wound contraction. Can resist normal stress such as tension or twisting after 15-20 days.

SANGUINEOUS EXUDATE

Bloody drainage from a wound or surgical drain

SCALES

These are categorized as "Above the Surface" skin condition. Is flaking of the skin's surface. EX: Dandruff, psoriasis, xerosis

SCAR

This is categorized as a "Below the Skin Surface" condition. Fibrous tissue that replaces dermal tissue after injury. Ex: from a healed surgical incision.

SEBACEOUS CYST

Sebaceous gland filled with sebum

SEBUM

Oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of the skin, that lubricates the skin, helping to keep it soft & pliable.

SEBACEOUS GLANDS

These secrete an oily substance called sebum

SECONDARY INTENTION

This type of healing is in wounds with extensive tissue loss & wounds in which the edges cannot be approximated (closed). Would is left open and granulation tissue gradually fills in the deficit. Susceptible to infection. Wet to dry dressings. Ex: Pressure Ulcer

SEROSANGUINEOUS EXUDATE

Discharge that is clear with some blood (pink) tinge; seen with surgical incisions. Normal after surgical incisions.

SEROUS EXUDATE

Discharge composed primarily of serum; is a clear watery viscous serum in appearance and has a low protein level. The clear portion of blood. Seen with mild inflammation (blisters)

SHEARING

Force exerted against the skin by movement or repositioning

SKIN

This is continuous with mucous membranes at external body openings of the resp. tract, digestive system and urogenital tract.

SKIN

Assessment of this includes integrity, color, temp, moisture, texture, turgor & mobility, sensation & vascularity.

SKIN

This plays roles in regulation of body temp., functioning as a sensory organ, maintains fluid & electrolyte balance, produces V-D and excretes certain waste products from the body.

SKIN

This contains receptors for pain, touch, pressure & temperature. Has sensory receptors and provide sensations of comfort & pleasure.

SKIN CANCER

This is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the US and is the most PREVENTABLE cancer.

SKIN BIOPSY

this is the ONLY confirmation method of skin cancer

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

This carcinoma appears as a nodular lesion in the epidermis. Is less common. It can extend into the dermis & metastize to other body tissues, causing death.

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

This carcinoma is single crusted & scaled. Is nodular lesion in epidermis. Will go deeper, More likely to metastasize. Treatments are surgery, Chemo & Zinc Chloride.

NEOPLASMS

These are non malignant. Do not require med or nursing interventions. Begin as fatty tissue tumor. Sebaceous cysts, Keloid (abnormal growth of scar tissue, Angioma (birth marks) and Port Wine Patch (on face)

STRIAE

Stretch marks

SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE

This tissue is primarily connective & adipose (fatty) tissue. It anchors skin to muscles & bones. It plays an important factor in body temperature regulation.

SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE

Loss of ____ ______ causes skin sagging & wrinkles. The sebaceous & sweat glands diminishes, resulting in dry skin.

SUPPORATION

The process of pus formation

TELANGIESTASIA

Permanent dilation of groups of superficial capillaries and venules; commonly known as "spider veins"

TERTIARY INTENTION

This type of (wound) healing is also known as "delayed or secondary closure". May occur due to poor circulation or infection. May come about as a result of a surgical wound coming open. Wound left open until risk of (or) infection is resolved.

TUMOR

This is the same as a nodule, only greater than 2 cm. EX carcinoma. NOT basal cell or squamous cell of the skin.

ULCER

This is categorized as a "Below the Skin Surface" condition. A depressed lesion of the epidermis and upper papillary layer of the dermis. Ex: Stage 2 pressure ulcer

UNINTENTIONAL

These wounds are unanticipated and are often the result of trauma or an accident. They are created in an unsterile environment & pose a greater risk of infection.

VITILIGIO

Depigmentation of the skin caused by destruction of melanocytes; appears as milk-white patches on the skin, surrounded by normal skin

WOUND

Disruption in the integrity of body tissues

WOUND CONTRACTION

What is the final step of the reconstructive phase of wound healing?

CLEAN

These wounds are intentional wounds that were created under conditions in which no inflammation was encountered & the respiratory, alimentary, genitourinary, and oropharyngeal tracts were not entered.

CLEAN CONTAMINATED

These wounds are intentional wounds that were created by entry into the alimentary, respiratory, genitourinary, or oropharyngeal tract under controlled conditions.

CONTAMINATED

These wounds are open, traumatic wounds or intentional wounds in which there was a major break in aseptic technique, spillage from the gastrointestinal tract, or incision into infected urinary or biliary tracts. They have acute nonpurulent inflammation present.

DIRTY & INFECTED

These wounds are traumatic wounds with retained dead tissue or foreign material or intentional wounds created in situations where purulent drainage was present.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set