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Neurons

individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, & transmit info.

Soma

cell body, contains the cell nucleus & much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.

Dendrites

the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive info.

Axon

long thin fiber that transmitts signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Myelin Sheath

insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons.

Terminal Buttons

small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters

Synapse

junction where info is transmitted from neuron to another

Resting Potential

a neuron is its stable negative charge when the cell is inactive

Action Potential

a very brief shift in a neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon

Absolute Refractory Period

minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential begins

Synaptic Cleft

microcopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron & the cell membrane of another neuron

Neurotransmitters

chemicals that transmit info from one neuron to another

Postsynaptic Potential

voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane

Excitatory PSP

positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.

Inhibitory PSP

negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials

Reup Take

process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane

Agonist

chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter

Antagonist

chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter

Endorphins

internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure & effects

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