into western Europe from eastern Europe made domestic grain prices drop and consequently caused an economic slump for landlords throughout the 14th and 15th century.
Order of the Garter
Similar to the King Arthur and the Round Table, Edward created thisfor a few nobles who acquire the highest qualities of chivalry. Edward was said to have obsessed with knightly glory and the war with France gave opportunity to claim honor and fame.
Holder of the Bohemian crown, he combined French and Czech traditions by importing artisans, architects, and artists. He was known to have taken a more active role in the cultural renewal, and built up an education system.
The Golden Bull of 1356
Charles IV issued an edict recognizing that various German princes and kings were autonomous rulers. It also stated that emperors were to be elected by seven great princes of the empire.
Hundred Years' War (1337-1452)
a series of military engagements between England and France over territorial and dynastic rivalries. It was the end of feudalism and later started the stages of nation building.
the competition between other royal administrations. They would fight for land, money, and power.
Battle of Crecy (1346)
The first time that the English longbow was used in was also the first real test of the two armies. Even though the French had an overwhelming superiority over the English; the English defeated them.
Battle of Agincourt (1415)
John II ordered to attack the English with their most heavily armored knights, attempting to charge while positioned in a muddy field, barely able to walk. The French were all captured, the king ordered that 1500 French nobles and 3000 ordinary soldiers be killed, awhile holding 1000 of the greatest nobles for ransom.
used as a title between, 1349 to 1830 as the eldest son to the King of France.
Battle of Orleans
lead by Joan of Arc and was won by the French. This first win led to many other victories.
the grandfather of Charles IV, he arranged for his son to marry Elizabeth, the heiress of Bohemia.
An Italian author, he wrote about the wide range of opinions on how to deal with the plague. His eyewitness description of the plague in the Decameron, helps us see the most graphic account of the disease and its effects on society.
Dance of Death
A picture of naked, rotting corpses dancing before the living. This was depicted in the murals of the church of the holy innocents in Paris around 1485, and was a popular image in art and literature.
Ramifications of The Plague
Jews were killed and blamed as scapegoats. Also, there were "aftershocks" almost every generation that killed people until 1771. Afterwards, surviving land owners had a great deal more money and land than before, and peasants were in greater demand. Tightening laws, however, brought social mobility to a standstill, which was very bad for peasants. Because there was less economic activity than before (because there were less people) larger taxes were imposed on those few left. There were violent uprisings in France, because between monarchs and land-owners, peasants were way over-taxed.
a revolt consisting of French peasants against the nobility, whom the peasants saw responsible of their ills. They didn't have a leader, so they killed any nobles they could find along with their families and burned their castles.
The Hanseatic League
towns upper Germany formed ________ and monopolized grain trade and forced Denmark to give exlusive member rights regarding shipping and exporting
moved the Papacy to France when he was elected as pope. He was close to Phillip IV of France and had no desire to be like Pope Boniface VIII.
an expression that Italian poet, Petrarch, wrote about the papacy. He went on to accuse the popes of every possible crime and sin, and lost sight of their roles as religious leaders.
was a conflict between two sets of rival popes in Rome and Avignon (France) that divided the loyalties of states and individuals in Europe.
an Italian poet who wrote in bitter tones about the popes. He viewed that the popes lost sight of their roles as religious leaders and was only interested in political and financial rewards.
suggested that an assembly of the Church rather than a pope held the most power. Both popes disagreed with this because it limited their power
Council of Pisa (1408)
disregarded the two popes and elected another pope. This solution made matters even worse, making three rival popes because none of them agreed with the Council and claimed to be true to St. Peter.
Council of Constance (1414-1418)
was under patronage of the emperor-elect Sigismund, cardinals, bishops, abbots, and theologians to resolve the crisis. Their purpose was to prevent another scandal from happening again.
an elected Italian Cardinal, made pope. He was elected by the Council of Constance to end the Great Schism, the Avignon and Pisa pope were disregarded.
a popular young master and preacher who attacked indulgences and demeanded a reform of Church liturgy and morals.
The Imitation of Christ
An unknown member of the Brethren, who wrote about the spiritual direction that the Brethren of the Common Life followed, wrote this book.
Bretheran of the Common Life
They were seeking more intimate relationships with God so they dedicated themselves to preaching, charity, and a pious life.
an Oxford theologian who attacked the doctrinal and political bases of the Church. He taught that the sacraments value determined on who was implying them. He believed that any priest, pope, and cardinal was not allowed to sin or else his authority would be forfeited.
believed that people should be free to determine their own form of government and elect their rulers. He also believed that the government and the Church should be separate.
is the writing in the common language. It allowed the spreading of ideas in different languages.
a Tuscan poet who was known as an amazing poet. He was known for being able to write love lyrics in a new sensitivity and individual expression. He also wrote the Divine Comedy
an English writer who presented images of contemporary society with a critical and often ironic view. His work is sophisticated and wide-ranging, that involved a lot of late medieval literature and life.
a fine paid on a marriage in the Middle Ages in England. When a peasant woman was to get married to someone who was not of the same manor, her lord was paid money to allow her to be married.
provided markets for the agriculture produce of the farmers and the manufactured goods for artisans. These markets allowed for specialization in the markets, which increased productivity and wages
provided protection for the consumers and producers. They guaranteed profits and maintained standards for craftsmanship
a one man ruler, or a monarchist. Their power was then taken away by Italian city-states.
The Peace of Lodi (1454)
a treaty which established 2 alliances between Florence and Milan, and the other by Venice and Naples; this was a nonaggression policy, that lasted for 40 years. Though it did not bring peace, the powers continued to "swallow" up surrounding towns.
He went against the church, and pointed out the corruptness of the Papacy, and the material focus of Florence. He was punished by being excommunicated and was killed for his teachings
is the art of language, humanists taught the humanities, the skills of discipline.
is the art of expression and persuasion
It was the time period of the climax of Renaissance art. This time period was in between 1500 and 1527, primarily in Rome but also in Florence
He was an architect who challenged the principles of Gothic structure and combined it with elements of classical. He reintroduced spheres and planes.
He was artist who was famous for his sculptures. HE became famous when he won a contest to make a set of bronze doors for a Florence cathedral.
His greatest achievement was the sculpture of David, and he painted on the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel.
He created more of a naturalistic form of art, he sculpted cloth in a way they were actually held.
Leonardo da Vinci
He wasn't only a great artist, but he had some amazing science achievements with the human anatomy. He also drew out engineering inventions, such as models for the airplane and the helicopter.
It is the technique used to enhance the features of a flatten surface to have depth and dimension
an etiquette book that described how a state servant should act. It included table manners to artistic attainments and written by Baldesar Castigilone.
a book that stated, "Men must be either crushed or pampered." It was a handbook for a ruler who would establish himself a lasting government. Wrote by Machiavelli.
book written by Sir Thomas More. It setting with a different kind of thinking about life and the supposed customs of strange took the lands.
He was known as the "Prince of the Humanists." He was a priest, humanist, and theologian; he had contemporary views about the Church.
a tax directed on property to the common people, by which the clergy and nobility were exemped.
Concordat of Bologna (1516)
stated that the Pope could collect all the income that the Catholic Church made in France, while the King of France was confirmed in his right to the clerics and to restrict their right of appeal to Rome. It confirmed the King of France's right to nominate, by controlling its personnel, to decide who was to lead the Church in France