Microbiology (Exam 1)

384 terms by amanalo 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

amanalo

Microbiology

Study of small forms of life

The unit of measure of bacteria

Micron | Micrometer | 10^-6m

Shapes of bacteria

1. Cocci | 2. Rod | 3. Spiral or Spirochetes

Genetics

Study of heredity or genes

Mycology

Study of fungi

Protozoology

Study of protozoa

Virology

Study of viruses

Immunology

Study of the immune system

Size of Cocci Bacteria

0.5 to 2 Microns

Size of Rod Bacteria

1 by 3 Microns

Size of Spiral Bacteria or Spirochetes

1 by 600 Microns

Characteristics of Protozoans

1. Kingdom: Protista | 2. Single Cell Animals | 3. Advanced Cell | 4. Eucaryotes | 5. Lack Cell Wall | 6. Saprophytes (98%) | 7. Pathogens (2%)

Characteristics of Algae

1. Kingdom: Protista | 2. Eucaryotes | 3.Photosynthesis | 4. Cell Wall Present | 5. Non-pathogens

Characteristics of Fungi

1. Two Types: Mold and Yeast | 2. Kingdom: Fungi | 3. Eucaryotes | 4. Non-photosynthetic | 5. Saprophytes (98%) | 6. Pathogens (2%)

Characteristics of Mold

1. Multicellular | 2. Some have Septate Hyphae | 3. Mycelium (Colony)

Characteristics of Yeast

1. Unicellular

Characteristics of Bacteria

1. Kingdom: Prokaryotae or Monera | 2. Procaryotes | 3. Saprophytes (96%) | 4. Pathogens (4%)

Characteristics of Viruses

1. Size: Nanometer (10^-9m) | 2. Non-Cellular | 3. Lacks: cell membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear apparatus, enzymes, ATP | 4. Non-living | 5. Kingdom: None

Parts of a Virus

1. Capsid | 2. Nucleic Acid (RNA or DNA - NOT both) | 3. Envelope (Host Cell Membrane - Optional)

Characteristics of Prions

1. Naked free proteins | 2. (I.E.) Mad Cow Disease

Characteristics of Eucaryotes

1. Advanced Cell | 2. Membrane Bound Organelles | 3. Size: Millimeters | 4. Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis | 5. Nucleus - membrane bound

Characteristics of Procaryotes

1. Primitive Cell | 2. Lack Organelles | 3. Reproduction: Amitosis | 4. Size: Microns

Saprophytes

Converts organic (living or once-living) material into organic material (nonliving); recycles nutrients

Why are microbes ideally suited to demonstrate principles of biology?

1. Easily grown in small test tubes and flasks | 2. Low maintenance (economical) | 3. Growth rate: Quick; ex. E. coli - 17 minutes | 4. Metabolism: similar to higher plants and animals; ex. fermentation

Septate Hyphae

Microscopic filaments in some mold cells

Mycelium

Colony of mold

Bacon

1. 13th century philosopher | 2. Disease - punishment from God or Gods

Robert Hooke

1. Coined term 'Cell' from viewing cork

Van Leeuwenhoek

1. Father of microbiology | 2. Developed first true microscope (400x) | 3. Observed pond water; "Animalcules"

Spontaneous Generation Theory

1. Life arises from non-life | 2. "Vital Force" need in air

Francesco Redi

1. Against spontaneous generation theory | 2. Experiment: Two jars each with meat. One jar is covered with gauze, other jar is uncovered. Jar with gauze did not have maggots. jar without gauze had maggots. No vital force due to gauze

John Needham

1. Supported spontaneous generation theory. | 2. Experiment: Broth in a capped flask is boiled. Broth is transfered to another flask. Microbes grows in broth because of contamination.

Spallanzani

1. Against spontaneous generation theory. | 2. Experiment: Broth in a capped flask is boiled. Cooled down with cap. Result: sterile broth. No "vital force" able to enter broth.

Louis Pasteur

1. Removed spontaneous generation theory. | 2. Experiment: Broth in flask with long curved neck that is open to air is boiled and cooled down. Broth remains sterile because microbes are not able to pass curved neck. | 3. Developed biogenesis | 4. Developed aseptic technique | 5. Ubiquity of microbes: microbes found everywhere

Biogenesis

Life from life

John Tyndall

1. Developed method of sterilization called Tyndallization | 2. Bacteria can exist in two forms: spores and vegetative cells

Tyndallization

Procedure: boil nutrient solution for 1 hour on three consecutive days. Exospores that survive from boiling in the 1st and 2nd day germinate into vegetative cells. After the 3rd day, any remaining exospores would have germinated and killed with boiling on the 3rd day.

Germ Theory of Disease

Microbes may cause disease

John Lister

English doctor who soaked surgical instruments in a disinfectant | Rate of infection went down | * Applied germ theory of disease to surgery

Taxonomy

Science dealing with the classification of living organisms

Nomenclature

Refers to a system by which organisms are classified

Kingdom

General Characteristics (Plant Kingdom, Animal Kingdom)

Scientific Name

Genus and species (ex. Escherichia coli)

Strain

Specific type of a species (ex. Escherichia coli B)

Binomial System

Double name | Rules: Underline Genus and species, Capitalize Genus name only, small letter for species name

Criteria used to classify Bacteria

1. Morphology (structure) Ex. Cocci, Rod, Spiral shaped | 2. Genetic similarities (DNA, RNA) | 3. Physiological (Biochemical) Characteristics

Biochemical Test

Based upon the ability of a specific microbe to produce a specific enzyme | Ex. E. coli and Shigella produce Amylase | Enzymes are created by RNA and RNA are created by DNA | If two Bacteria produce the same enzyme, then they are related

What is used to make RNA?

DNA

Classical Approach

Biased, indirect approach | Based on some characteristics are more important than others (biased) | Ex. Phenotype characteristic and Physiological characteristics (Biochemical test)

Phenotype

Trait

Numerical Taxonomy Approach

Unbiased approach | Uses a Similarity Coefficient (% Similarity) |

% Similarity Equation

(Number of Similar Characteristics / Total Number of Characteristics Tested) x 100

Criteria: Cell (Microscopic) Morphology

1. Shapes | 2. Sizes | 3. Arrangement of cells | 4. External and internal structures

Criteria: Macroscopic Morphology

Colony size, appearance

First Step in bacteria identification

Differential Staining (Gram Stain, Acid-Fast Stain)

Criteria: Mode of Obtaining Energy

Phototrophs, Chemotrophs

Criteria: Carbon Source

Organotroph, Lithotroph

Psychrophiles

"Cold Loving" | 15C-20C | Ex. Marine bacteria, Red algae

Mesophiles

"Middle Loving" | 35C-40C | Ex. Pathogens

Thermophiles

"Heat Loving" | 50C-60C (Boiling water) | Ex. Archaeobacteria

Criteria: Oxygen Requirements

Aerobic: 16% | Microaerophilic: 6-10% | Facultative Anaerobe: 0-21% | Anaerobes: 0%

Criteria: Metabolic/Biochemical Characteristics

Based on the ability of a microbe to synthesize or not synthesize a specific enzyme

Criteria: Serology

Science that deals with blood serum (Antibodies) and immunology

Antibodies

Serum proteins produced by body after exposure to antigens which bind specifically to those antigens

Antigen

Anything foreign to body and stimulates production of antibodies | Microbes are antigens

Agglutination Reaction

Positive test of unknown bacteria plus known antiserum (antibodies)

Criteria: DNA Base Composition

% G-C Ratio | Determine the % Guanine-Cytosine nitrogen base composition of DNA | Theory: Similar organism have similar genes and therefore similar % G-C ratios

% G-C Ratio Equation

%G-C Ratio = ((G-C) / ((G-C) + (A - T))) x 100

Criteria: DNA Hybridization

Determine the sequences of Nucleotide Bases | Similar organisms have similar sequences of nucleotide bases

DNA Hybridization Procedure (One type of DNA)

Heat DNA (complementary DNA strands break apart (denatured), hydrogen bonds are broken | Cool DNA (two DNA strands associate, Double helix reformed due to complementary base pairing)

DNA Hybridization of Two types of DNA

If two organisms are related, then the sequence of bases on each DNA molecule will be complementary to each other and the two different DNA molecules will reassociate as a double helix

DNA Probes

DNA fragments tagged with radioactive isotopes or fluorescent dyes

Criteria: Bacterial Recombination (Sexual Conjugation)

Exchange of DNA (plasmid) from one bacteria to another through a pili | Theory: Common to closely related organisms

Criteria: Ribosomal RNA Base Sequencing

Sequence of r-RNA nucleotide bases reflects sequence of bases on DNA molecule

Criteria: Amino Acid Sequences

Amino acid sequence of the same protein take from two different microbes reflect sequences of bases on the different DNA molecules

Criteria: Protein Analysis

Characteristic pattern of cell's proteins compared to other cells protein profile

Criteria: Fatty Acid Analysis

Analysis of fatty acids in cell wall, cell membrane, and as waste products | Fatty Acid Profile

Kingdom Classification

1. Monera/Procaryotae | 2. Protista | 3. Fungi | 4. Plantae | 5. Animalia

Bergey's Three Kingdom Classification

1. Procaryotae (Div I: Blue-Green Algae/Cyanobacteria, Div II: Eubacteria and Archaeobacteria) | 2. Plantae (Fungi, True Algae) | 3. Animalia (Protozoans)

Types of Spirochetes

* Treponema pallidum

Characteristics of Spirochetes

Gram Negative | Aerobic - Facultative Anaerobes | 3 to 600 Microns | Motility: Axial Filament | * Chemoorganotrophic, Phatogenic

Axial Filament

Motile by corkscrew motion and flexing

Syphillis

* Disease caused by Treponema pallidum

Types of Spiral and Curved Bacteria

Spirillum | Campylobacter fetus

Characteristics of Spiral and Curved Bacteria

Gram Negative | Microaerophilic | 0.5 to 60 Microns | Motility: Monotrichous, Lophotrichous, Amphitrichous | * Chemoorganotrophic, Saprophytic, Phatogenic

Monotrichous

* Single Flagella

Lophotrichous

* Tuft of Flagella at one end

Amphitrochous

* Flagella at both ends

Diseases caused by Campylobacter fetus

Cause miscarriages in humans | Enteritis (food poisoning, turkey meat)

Enteritis

Food poisoning

Types of Gram Negative Aerobic Bacteria

Pseudomonas aeruginosa | Neisseria gonorrheae | Neisseria meningitidis | Francisella tularensis | Brucella abortus | Bordetella pertussis

Characteristics of Pseudomonas

Aerobic | Rods | Motility: Monotrichous | Chemoorganotrophic | Ubiquitous | Fastidious | * Produce pyocyanin

Diseases caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

3rd degree patients - No "Get well flowers" | Causes ear infections, eye infections, nosocomial infections, urinary tract infections, respiratory infection (trachea), septicemia (blood infection), meningitis

Nosocomial Infections

Hospital acquired infections

Pyocyanin

Blue - Green pigment | Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Characteristics of Neisserias

Microaerophilic | Cocci (single, pairs, chains) | Chemoorganotrophic | Fastidious

Gonorrhea

Disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae | Inhabits urogenital tract (mucus membrane) | STD/STI

Meningitis

Disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis | Inhabits upper respiratory tract (mucus membrane)

Characteristics of Francisella tularensis

Gram Negative | Aerobic | Pleomorphic Rods | 0.2 Microns (smallest bacteria) | * Chemoorganotrophic

Tularemia

Disease caused by Francisella tularensis | "Hunter's disease", 105F fever, swollen lymph nodes | * Transmission: contact w/ blood, penetrates small cuts and pores of skin; from infected animals or vectors (ticks, mosquitos, deer flies)

Characteristics of Brucella abortus

Gram Negative | Aerobic | Short rods | Chemoorganotrophic | * Pathogens of reproductive and GI tract

Brucellosis

* Disease caused by Brucella abortus | "Undulant Fever" in humans

Characteristics of Bordetella pertussis

Gram Negative | Aerobic | Short rods | Chemoorganotrophic | * Pathogens of respiratory tract

Whooping cough

* Disease caused by Bordetella pertussis

Types of Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobic Rods

Escherichia | Enterobacter | Serratia | Salmonella | Shigella | Proteus | Vibrio | Yersinia

Characteristics of Escherichia

Gram Negative | Small Rod | Peritrichous flagellation or nonmotile | Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Ferments carbohydrates | Coliform | Transmission: Oral-fecal, food/water borne | *Opportunistic Pathogen

Characteristics of Enterobacter

Gram Negative | Small Rod | Peritrichous flagellation or nonmotile | Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Ferments carbohydrates | Coliform | Transmission: Oral-fecal, food/water borne | *Opportunistic Pathogen

Characteristics of Serratia

Gram Negative | Small Rod | Peritrichous flagellation or nonmotile | Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Ferments carbohydrates | Coliform | Transmission: Oral-fecal, food/water borne | *Opportunistic Pathogen

Characteristics of Proteus

Gram Negative | Small Rod | Peritrichous flagellation or nonmotile | Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Ferments carbohydrates | Coliform | Transmission: Oral-fecal, food/water borne | *Opportunistic Pathogen

Diseases caused by Escherichia coli

Urinary tract infection | Peritonitis | Gastroenteritis (food poisoning) | Diarrhea | Nosocomial infections | Enterohemorrhagic strain

Characteristics of Yersina

Gram Negative | Small Rod | Peritrichous flagellation or nonmotile | Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Ferments carbohydrates | Coliform | Transmission: Fleas on Rodents| * Pathogen

Characteristics of Salmonella

Gram Negative | Small Rod | Peritrichous flagellation or nonmotile | Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Ferments carbohydrates | Coliform | Transmission: Oral-fecal, food/water borne | * Pathogen

Characteristics of Shigella

Gram Negative | Small Rod | Peritrichous flagellation or nonmotile | Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Ferments carbohydrates | Coliform | Transmission: Oral-fecal, food/water borne | * Pathogen

Bubonic Plague

Disease caused by Yersina pestis | "Black Death" | * Mortality Rate: 70%

Pneumonic Plague

Disease caused by Yersina pestis | Mortality Rate: 100%

Gastroenteritis

* Disease caused by Salmonella enteritidis (from chicken) or Vibrio parahaemolyticus (from seafood)

Typhoid Fever

* Disease caused by Salmonella typhi

Bacillary dysentery

Disease caused by Shigella dysenteriae | Ulcerated colon | * Bleed out in 2 days

Characteristics of Vibrio

Gram Negative | Short, straight or curved rod | Monotrichous flagella } Chemoorganotrophic | Facultative anaerobes | Occurs in fresh and salt water and GI tract of humans and animals

Cholera

Disease caused by Vibrio cholerae | Bacteria coats intestinal lining causing diarrhea, dehydration, and electrolyte loss | Death from cardiovascular disease | Loss of 20 liters of liquid per day

Types of Anaerobic Gram Negative Rods

* Bacteroides

Characteristics of Bacteroides

Gram Negative | Anaerobic | Pleomorphic rods | Peritrichous flagellation | Chemoorganotrophic | Most numerous in intestine | * Transmission: Internal wounds: knife, gunshots, ulcers

Diseases caused by Bacteroides fragilis

Abscesses and bloodstream infections | Peritonitis

Peritonitis

Disease caused by Bacteroides fragilis | It is an inflammation of the peritoneum, the tissue that lines the wall of the abdomen and covers the abominal organs

What group of bacteria is the smallest?

Rickettsias and Chlamydias | 0.2 Microns to 0.1 Microns

Characteristics of Rickettsia

Gram Negative | Pleomorphic rods | Nonmotile | Among the smallest bacteria (0.1 to 0.2 Microns) | Fastidious | Obligate intracellular parasites | * Transmission: Insect vector required

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Disease caused by Rickettsia | Transmitted by Insect: Dog or Wood Tick

Epidemic Typhus

Disease caused by Rickettsia | Transmitted by Insect: Lice

Murine Typhus

Disease caused by Rickettsia | Transmitted by Insect: Fleas

Strict Obligate Intracellular Parasite

Requires host cell to reproduce inside of

Pleomorphic

Various shapes and sizes

Characteristics of Chlamydia

Gram Negative | Pleomorphic rods | Nonmotile | Among the smallest bacteria (0.1 to 0.2 Microns) | Fastidious | Obligate intracellular parasites | Steals energy from host cell | Transmission: Interpersonal contact, Airborne (flies)

Trachoma

Disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis | Eye infection | * No. 1 cause of blindness in the world

Chlamydial Infection (STD)

Disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis | No. 1 STD | * Transmission: Mucus membrane to mucus membrane

Characteristics of Mycoplasma

Naturally lacks cell wall | Gram Negative | Highly pleomorphic | Colony: "Fried Egg" appearance | Saprophytic or Pathogenic | Fastidious

Primary Atypical Pneumonia

Disease caused by Mycoplasma and L-Forms | "Walking pneumonia"

L Forms

Lacks cell wall | Induced in lab with antibiotics | Protoplasts - originally gram positive | Spheroplast - originall gram negative

Protoplast

A type of L-Form bacteria | Originally a gram positive bacteria

Spheroplast

A type of L-Form bacteria | Originally a gram negative bacteria

Types of Gram Positive Cocci

Staphylococcus | Streptococcus

Characteristics of Staphyloccus

Gram Positive | Cocci (Clusters, single, pairs, fours) | 1 to 2 Microns | Chemoorganotrophic | * Facultative anaerobe | Habitat: Nasopharynx, Skin

Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus

Wound, skin infections | Abscesses | Toxic shock syndrome | Nosocomial infections | * Food poisoning (most common)

Characteristics of Streptococcus

Gram Positive | Chains of cocci | Facultative anaerobe 1 to 2 Microns | * Habitat: Nasopharynx, Urogenital

Strep Throat

* Disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

Scarlet Fever

* Disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

Rhumatic Fever

Disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes | Autoimmune disease (Infection of heart valves)

Bacterial pneumonia

* Disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

MRSA

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus auerus

Types of Endospore Forming Gram Positive Rods

Bacillus | Clostridium

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set