ap chapter 5 tissues

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ap chapter 5 tissues

major tissues (4)

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

Note: look for what is unique about them.
cartilage question

Epithelial Tissue - details (9)

Glands. inside & out
1. Covers organs and the body
2. Lines body cavities and hollow organs
3. Has free surface and basement membrane. only tissue you can touch. UNIQUE
4. Avascular - w/o blood cells
5. Cells readily divide
6. Cells tightly packed - come off as a sheet. not all tissue have because of desmosomes. things can't diffuse thru many layers
7. Desmosomes
8. Functions in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion (kidneys)
9. Classified by cell shape and number of cell layers

Epithelial tissue (EXAM)
types of cells (3)
Layers (2)

A. Types of cells
1. Squamous - flat, skin
2. Cuboidal - wide as tall
3.Columnar - taller
B. Layers
1. Simple
2. Stratified - more than one layer

Simple squamous epithelial characteristics (EXAM)

1. Single row of flat cells (most top layer is squamous)
2. Permits diffusion of substances
3. Secretes serous fluid
4a. *Alveoli - air sacs of lungs. 02 can diffuse easily
b. glomeruli - kidneys
c. *endothelium - lines blood vessels. ex. capillaries diffuse out of blood into system
d. serosa - membranes

Simple cuboidal epithelial characteristics (3)

1. Single row cube-shaped cells with microvilli
2. Absorption and secretion, mucus production
3. Liver, thyroid, mammary and salivary glands, bronchioles, and kidney tubules

Simple columnar epithelial characteristics

1. Single row tall, narrow cells
a. oval nuclei in basal half of cell
2. Absorption and secretion; mucus secretion (goblet cells)
3. Lining of GI tract, uterus, kidney and uterine tubes

Pseudostratified epithelial characteristics (2)

1. Single row of cells some not reaching free surface
a. nuclei give layer stratified look
2. Secretes and propels respiratory mucus

Stratified epithelia characteristics (4)

1. More than one layer of cells - most top layer is squamous
2. amed for shape of surface cells
a. exception is transitional epithelium
3. Deepest cells on basement membrane
4. Variations
a. *keratinized (protein) epithelium has surface layer of dead cells (on the outside, inhibits diffusion)
b. nonkeratinized epithelium lacks the layer of dead cells

Keratinized stratified squamous characteristics (2)

1. Multilayered epithelium covered with dead squamous cells, packed with keratin
a. epidermal layer of skin
2. Retards water loss and barrier to organisms

Non-Keratinized stratified squamous characterisitics (2)

1. Multilayered surface epithelium forming moist, slippery layer
2. Tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus and vagina (blood throughout)

Stratified cuboidal epithelium characteristics (3)

1. Two or more cell layers; surface cells square
2. Secretes sweat; produces sperm and hormones
3. Sweat gland ducts; ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules

transitional epithelium characteristics (1)

1. Multilayered epithelium surface cells that change from round to flat when stretched
a. allows for filling of urinary tract
b. ureter and bladder & umbilical cord

stretched w/o breaking. ex. bladder

Glandular epithelium characteristics

1. Exocrine glands have ducts for secretions. go to specific spot (ex. sweat, saliva)
2. Endocrine glands are ductless
3. Functional classifications of exocrine glands (based on how secretion is released)
- Apocrine glands
- Holocrine glands
- Merocrine glands

Types of glands (3)

Merocrine (exocytosis) glands. intact cell, secretion
- Fluid product by exocytosis
- Salivary glands
- Pancreas (exocrine & endocrine)
- Sweat glands - cool you down
2. Apocrine glands (not common) breaking off pieces. pinched off portion of cell (secretion)
- Cellular product
- Portions of cells
- Mammary glands
- Ceruminous glands (ear wax)
- another type of sweat gland=body odor. starts at puberty, arm pits, nipples, anus
3. Holocrine glands - rupture. disintegrating cell & its contents (secretion). new cell formed by mitosis & cytokinesis
- Secretory products
- Whole cells
- Sebaceous glands - oil secretion. clogged pores & cell debris

Connective tissue characteristics (6)

1. Most abundant tissue type
2. Several functions
a. Bind structures
b. Provide support & protection
c. Serves as framework
d. Fills spaces
e. Stores fat
f. Produces blood cells
g. Protects against infections
h. Helps repair tissue damage
3. Varying degree of vascularity
4. Matrix (UNIQUE). intercellular material
5. Cells usually divide
6. Four major subcategories: fibrous; cartilage (on TEST); bone; blood

Cells of connective tissue (6) 1/2

1. Fibroblasts produce fibers and ground substance
2. Macrophages phagocytize foreign material and activate immune system
a. arise from monocytes (WBCs)
3. Neutrophils wander in search of bacteria
4. Plasma cells synthesize antibodies
a. arise from WBCs
5. Mast cells secrete
a. heparin inhibits clotting
b. histamine that dilates blood vessels
6. Adipocytes (stores fat) store triglycerides
Note: cells don't touch matrix

Cells of connective tissues (3) 2/2

1. Descriptive word stems
a. Blasts: create the matrix, example osteoblast. (making something. ex. making bones)
2. Cytes: maintain the matrix, example chondrocyte (maintaining cartilage)
3. Clasts: break the matrix down for remodeling, example osteoclasts (breaks down bone matrix)

Fibers of connective tissue

1. Collagen fibers (white fibers) - blood has this when clots
a. tough, stretch resistant, yet flexible
b. tendons, ligaments and deep (bottom) layer of the skin
2. Reticular fibers (mesh works)
a. thin, collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein
b. framework in spleen and lymph nodes
3. Elastic fibers (yellow fibers)
a. thin branching fibers of elastin protein
b. stretch and recoil like rubberband (elasticity)
c. skin, lungs and arteries stretch and recoil (ex. bend ear & it snaps back)

Fibrous connective tissue (4 types)

Four types: areolar (loose) connective; adipose; reticular; dense (resilant) connective
Note: cells don't touch

Bone tissue (5)

1. Two types: compact (outside/dense) and cancellous (inside-strong but lightweight) (spongy)
2. Osteon - basic structural unit of compact bone
3. Cells types:
a. Osteocyte - mature inactive bone cell (maintain)
b. Osteoblast - active bone-forming cell (build up)
c. Osteoclast - bone-destroying cell (break down)
4. Ossification - formation of bone from cartilage or membranes. ex. membrane in skull, cartilage & rest of skeletan
5. Supports, protects, attachment of muscles

Cartilage (5)

connective tissue, doesn't repair itself
1. Matrix contains fibers and ground (glucosamine & ___) substance
2. Avascular - no blood flow to cartilage
3. Chondrocyte - cells that maintain (onnective tissue cell that occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix. Also called cartilage cell) Chondroblast=builds up
4. Perichondrium - membrane (that is where it gets its nutrients) around it. (gelatin - think of diffusion w/gel as an example)
5. 3 types:
a. Hyaline cartilage - on end of bones that is part of a *movable joint. (ex. condyle, capitulum, adams apple, rings of trachaea). Most common
b. Fibrocartilage (where found??)
c. Elastic cartilage (where found??)

Blood

Matrix liquid
No ground substance or fibers
Transportation, defense

Muscle tissue (3)

Contracts
1. Skeletal muscle
a. Striations present (not visible, micro)
b. Voluntary
2. Smooth muscle - walls of hollow organ (ex. blood & bladder)
a. No striations
b. Involuntary
3. Cardiac muscle
a. Striated
b. Involuntary
c. Branching cells forming a syncytium (works as a unit, intertwined)

goblets

mucous. is a cell that produces mucous. respiratory & digestive tract.

tendon

bone to muscle

ligament

bone to bone

osteo

bone

alveoli

air sacs of lungs, 02 can diffuse easily.
simple squamous epithelium

glomeruli

kidneys
simple squamous epithelium

endothelium

lines blood vessels ex. diffuse out of blood into system
simple squamous epithelium

serosa

membranes
simple squamous epithelium

Hyaline cartilage - locations & functions

connective tissue
smooth surface, easy to move w/o arthritis
locations: btw tips of ribs & bones of sternum, covering bone surfaces, trachea
functions: provides stiff but somewhat flexible support, reduces friction btw bony surfaces

Elastic cartilage - locations & functions

connective tissue
elastic quality=ex. ears. ear to throat=ear popping
**Epiglottis = closes over respiratory tract to close off food
locations: epiglottis, auditory canal, cartilages of larynx.
functions: provides support, but tolerates distortion w/o damage & returns to original shape.

fibrocartilage - locations & functions

connective tissue. ex. symphysis pubis. a lot of cushion, for a lot of stress
locations: pads w/in knee joint, btw pubic bones of pelvis, intervertebral discs
functions: resists compression, prevents bone-to-boen contact, limits relative movement.

Blood (3)

connective tissue
1. Matrix liquid = plasma
2. No ground substance or fibers (unless blood clotting)
3. Transportation, defense (WBC) transports nutrients, 02 etc...

Skeletal muscle - locations & functions

striations & voluntary
locations: combined w/connective tissues & nervous tissue in skeletal muscles
functions: moves or stabilizes the position of skeletan, guards entrances & exits to the digestive, respiratory & urinary tracts, generates heat, protects internal organs

Smooth muscle - locations & functions

no striations & involuntary
locations: the walls of digestive, respiratory, urinary & reproductive organs, encircles blood vessels
functions: moves food, urine & reproductive tract secretions; controls diameter of respiratory passageways; regulates diameter of blood vessels

Cardiac muscle - locations & functions

striated, involuntary & branching cells forming syncytium (continuous, electrically coupled mass of cardiac fibers - works as a unit, intertwined)
location: heart
functions: circulates blood, maintain blood pressure (hydrostatic)

Nervous tissue (4)

1. Neurons (nerves-electrical) and neuroglia - support & keep neurons healthy
2. Excitable - can stimulate (muscle tissue are too)
3. Capable of conduction - UNIQUE - electrical impulse
4. Communication and integration - messages around body & take info & make decision based on this

Tissue repair (3)

1. Varying capacities for repair.
2. Regeneration - replacement of cells with new functioning cells of the same type (epithelial tissue good at this - grows from bottom up)
3. Scar - replacement of cells with fibrous connective tissue

Nervous tissue liquidifying if damaged, doesn't regenerate

Tissue repair examples of

1. bleeding at site of injury right after injury & mast cells in region trigger an inflammatory repsonse. close off from bottom.
2. scab forms, phagocytes remove debris & more cells arrive in the area

Body membranes

Tissue that covers something
A. Epithelial membranes
1. Cutaneous membrane - skin
2. Mucous membranes - lines cavities open to the environment (anything that lines open to outside of body. ex. throat, mouth, anus, vagina, etc.)
3. Serous membranes - lines cavities not open to the environment (produces fluid similar to serum)
a. Made up of 2 distinct layers: parietal and visceral
4. Connective membranes (lining of moveable joints)
Lines spaces between bone and joints that move.

pleura

lung

pericardium

heart

visceral

sits on top of organs

parietal

farther from the organs

viscera

organ

retroperitoneum

behind peritoneum. not covered by peritoneum

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