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water

provides a medium for transporting nutrients to cells, act as a solvent for electrolytes and nonelectrolutes, help maintain body temperature, act as tissue lubricant, faciliates digest and promotes elimination

intracellular fluid

fluid within the cells, 70% of total body water, 40% of adult body weight

extracellular fluid

all fluid outside the cells, 30% of total body water and 20% of adult body weight

transcellular fluid

this type of fluid encompasses plasma, interstital fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid, synovial fluid

hypothalamus

where the thirst mechanism is located

kidney

retain electrolytes and water and excrete wastes and exccesses according to body needs, filter blood

cardivascular system

pumps and carries nutrients and water throughout the body

lungs

regulate o2 and co2 levels of blood, crucial in maintaining acid-base balance

aldosterone

a mineralocorticoid hormone that helps body conserve sodium, helps save chloride and water, and causes potassium to be excreted

solvents

liquids that hold a substance in a solution

solutes

substances that are dissolved in a solution

isotonic

fluid that has the same pulling power as plasma

hypertonic solution

greater osmolarity (pulling power) than plasma, water will move out of cells and cause cells to shrink

hypotonic solution

less osmolarity (pulling power) than plasma it causes cell to swell and possibly burst

acid

substance that has H+ ions

base

substance that accepts h+ ions

acidosis

pH level under 7.35

alkalosis

pH level over 7.45

buffer

substance that prevents body fluids from becoming too acidic or basic

carbonic acid h2co3

the human bodys most common acid

bicarbonate hco3-

the human bodys most common base

hypovolemia

isotonic fluid loss, loss of both water and solutes from the extracellular fluid space

hypervolemia

excessive retention of water and sodium in extracelluar fluid space

edema

accumulation of fluid in interstitial space

hyponatremia

sodium deficif in ECF, leads to cell swelling, resulting in hypotension, edema, muscle cramps

hypernatremia

surplus of sodium in ECF, leads to cell shrinking, results in neurological impairment, delusion, and hallucinations, permanent brain damage can occur

normal isotonic value

0.9% NS, lactated ringers d5w

hypotonic value

0.45 NS, 2.5% dextrose, sports drinks

hypertonic value

d5 ns, 3%NS

normal sodium range

135-145 mEq/L

normal potassium range

3.5 -4.8 mEq/L

normal magnesium range

1.4-2.0 mEq/L

normal calcium range

8.5-10.5 mg/dl

normal bicarbonate range

23 - 31.9 mEq/l

normal chloride range

100 - 108 mE1/L

normal phosphate range

2.6 - 4.5mg/dl

hypokalemia

potassium deficit, skeletal muscles show it, muscle weakness, leg cramps, parethesias, dysrhytmias

hyperkalemia

excess potassium, renal failure, hypoaldoesteronism, more dangerous, nerve conduction malfunction can occur, cardiac arrest can happen

hypocalcemia

calcium deficit, numbness and tingling of fingers, mouth or feet, tetany and seizures

hypercalcemia

causes bone pain, execessive urination, slurred speech, constipation, cardiac arrest may happen, nausea, vomitting, confusion

hypomagnesemia

magnesium deficit, occurs with alcohol withdrawl, sepsis or burns, leads to heart block, change in mental status, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, respiratory paralysis,

hypermagnesemia

occurs when renal failure occurs, includes loss of deep tendon reflex, respiratory depression, coma, flushing, lethargy, nausea

hypopohosphateemia

can result from administering too many calories to patients, alcohol withdrawl, hyperventilation, insuline relase, manifestation include paresthesais, confusino, serious, coma, irritability

hyperphosphatemia

common causes is impaired kidney excretion and hypoparathyroidism. can result in anorexia, nausea, tachycardia

hypochloremia

can result from GI tube drainage, burns, diuretic therapy, manifestations include hyperactive DTRS, weakness and muscle cramps

hyperchloremia

can result from mebaolic acidosis, head trauma, increased prespiration, excess adrenocortical hormone production, signs include tachypnea, weakness, lethargy, dimished cognitive ability, hypertension, decreased cardiac output

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