(f) 12-16 ; (m) 14 - 18
(f) 37-47% ; (m) 42-52 %
(f) 4.2-5.4 ; (m) 4.7-6.2 million
5,000 - 10,000
(f) 0-20 sec ; (m) 0-15 sec
Prothrombin Time (PT)
11 - 12 sec (Coumadin)
International Normalized Ratio (INR)
Normal <2, Coumaden 2-3 reported with PT
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
normal 30-40 ; heparin 53-70
135-145 critical <120 or >160
3.5-5.5 critical =< 2.5 or > 6.5
98-106 critical =< 80 or > 115
8.2-10.2 critical =<7 or > 12
0.3 - 1.0
10-20 critical >100 (have acidemia, confusion, fatigue, N/V, coma)
0.5-1.2 critical >7.4, renal insufficiency if 1.5-3
4-6% = good glucose control
CK-MB, troponin 1, AST, myoglobin, B-type natiuretic peptide
pH of urine
4.5 - 7.5
Specific gravity of urine
1.010 - 1.030
7.35 - 7.45
35 - 45
Why would you have prolonged bleeding time?
Thrombocytopenia, von Willebrand's
What would cause a deficit of hemoglobin?
Sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, pregnancy
What would cause an increase in hemoglobin?
COPD, high altitudes, polycythemia
What would cause a decrease in platelets?
Acute leukemia, DIC, thrombocytopenic purpura
What would cause an increse in platelets?
Acute infections, chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis, polycythemia
What would cause a decrease in sodium?
diabetic ketoacidosis, addison's, diuretics, excessive diaphoresis, water intoxication
What would cause an increase in sodium?
dehydration, renal insufficiency, corticosteroid tx, aldosteronism
What would cause a decrease in potassium?
Cushing's syndrome, diarrhea, diuretic, GI fistula, starvation, vomiting
What would cause an increase in potassium?
Addison's dse, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal insufficiency
What would cause a decrease in calcium?
acute pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism, liver disease, renal failure, vitamin D deficiency
What would cause an increase in calcium?
acute osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, vit D intoxication, multiple myeloma
What would cause a decrease in chloride?
Addison's dse, diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, vomiting
What would cause an increase in chloride?
metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, corticosteroid tx, uremia
What would cause an increase in creatinine?
severe renal disease
What would cause a decrease in BUN?
malnutrition, severe liver damage
What would cause an increase in BUN?
fever, stress, renal disease, UTI
1.5 - 2.5 mEq/L ( toxic level: 4.8 - 9.6 mEq/L)