Ch 4: Tissuse level of organization

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Tissues

groups of similiar cells and extracellular products that carry out a common function
these cells have physical connections: sensory and function abilities to communicate with eachother.

Nervous tissuse

consist of nerve cells (neurons) and neuroglial

central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)

outter boundry nervous system, appendages

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

neurons

funtional unit of the nervous system
conducts impulses from one cell to another
has a nucleus

Neuroglial (glial) cells

support cells of the nervous system
aid in conducting impulses

Muscle Tissue

responds to stimulation from the nervous system causing contraction; produces voulntary and invoulntary movement
types designated by microscopic apperance, neural control and type

Connective tissuse

all CT is derived fron mesoderm
most diverse, abundant, widely distributed & microscopically variable of tissues
evolved to support, protecct and bund organs/body structures together

Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)

contain fibers, cells, and ground substances

Collagen Fibers

most common(strong, stretch resistant) - seperates bones
Type 1: bones
type 2: cartilage
type 3: stroma of organs
type 4: basment membranes

Elastic Fibers

rubber-like flexible protien
seperates vertabre, spine

Reticular Fibers

form interwoven framework
very tough woven
network that allows support of organs ans resistaing damage

Fibroblast

make collagen, elastic and reticular fibers
important for strength and strech resistance

macrophages

immune cells
important for detecting pathogens and figting illness

adipocytes

fat cells
key for energy(energy reserve)

mesenchymal cells

'adult sperm cells'
support and repair

melanocytes

pigment cells
produce pigment and protection

Mast cells

contains histamine/stimulation inflammation
stimulates inflammation, puts pressure on nervous system and allows us to decet injury

Ground substance

gel like substance, can become mineralized and become bone
NON-LIVING
Tissuse fluid + protiens + polysaccharides
Fluid content determines the consistancy of the ground substance

Loose/Areolar CT

found everywhere in the body
loosely woven tissue with a fiber arragment that allows for distortion w/out damange
high fluid content easily permits nutrient and waste diffusion
very loose, lots of movement. allows for molecular moventment from high to low concentration

adipose

adipocytes provide protection, nutrient storage, and thermo regulation
white: pale yellow, less vasularized (found in brest, butt and thighs)
Brown: high viscularized for heat stimulation (in babies necks)

Reticular

small, net thin
contains thin reticular fibers
forms stroma(framework) for organs like spleen, liver
functional cells enmeshed w/in stroma
acts as support system

Dense Regular

parallel bundles of collagen fibers provide unidirectional strength
tendons, ligament, and aponeroses

Dense irregular

randomly oriented fibers provide strength in all directions
in urinary bladder

elastic

contains more elastin that collagen
densely packed parallel bundles of elastin all for strength and recoil
large atrerites, some ligaments, in the vertebral column

Cartilage

supports soft tissues and provides s gliding surface
model for bone formation
ECM has a ground substance of chohdrotion, sulfate and hyaluronic acid
hyalin: densely packed collagen fibers
fibrocartilage: thick wavy bundles of collagen, allows compression
elastic: less collagen, more elastic fibers allows flexability

Bone

structural support
protects delicate tissuse/organs
muscle + bone = movenemt
hematopeiesis
mineral reserves
martix is solified due to calcium

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

osteocytes

mature bone cells, new bone matrix

ostoeclast

cells function in absorption

Fluis type CT

lymph
blood is a fluid CT w/ fermed elements
leukocytes/white blood cells (immune response)
platelets (blood clotting)
erythrocytes/red blood cells (carry oxygen)

Epithelial tissue

composed of one or more layers of closely packed cells
lines every body surface, all body cavities, the external and internal lining of many organs (protection)
constitutes the majority of exocrine and endocrine glands(secretion)
composed of cells that can absorb nutrient molecules(absorption)

epithelial tissue: protection

protection is aided by the ways cells in epithelium are packed
adhering - metwork of supportive microfillaments that wrap around cell
gap - adjacent cells linked via channes set it their cell membranes
tight - partial fusion of adjacent cell membranes
desmosomes - link adjacent cells at potential stress points

Glandular Epithelium

epithelial cells are capable of producing a secreting a specific substance
develops a layer form epithelial surface

serous glands

produce and secrete sweat, milk, tears, digestive juices

mucus glands

produce and secrete mucin which form mucus with water

mixed glands

salivary glands contain serous and mucus cells and produce a mixture of the two types

exocrine glands

gland is connected to an epithelial surface by a duct
secretory portion made of glandular cells that produce material
Duct portion lined with ductal cells that channel secreted materials
Ductless allowing straight into the blood stream

Excretion methods: Merocrine

packing their secretions in structures called secretory resicles
the gladular cells remain intact and are not damanged in anny way by producing the secretion
secretion becomes released out of the cell membrane

exeretion methods: holocrine

secretion produced through the destruction of the secretory cell
lost cells replaced through division at the gland base
cells burst due to secretion of a certain product

Excretion methods: apocrine

a combination of merocrine and holocrine
apical region becomes packed w/ secretory vessicles and then is pinched off
remaining cell stump regenerates (due to stem cells)

Endocrine Glands

glandular cells in endocrine glands have no connection to an epithelial surface (no ducts)
cellular products are secreted into bloodstream
use hormones as chemical messengers to influence cell activities elsewhere in the body
some organs are both exocrine and endocrine (pancreas, overies, testies)

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