What does (Q) stand for?
What does HR stand for?
What does SV stand for?
What does (VO2) stand for?
What does MET stand for?
What does mL stand for?
What does "a - v O2 difference" mean?
It is the difference in the 02 (oxygen) content between the blood in the arteries and the blood in the veins.
What is our oxygen consumption at rest estimated to be?
3.5mL of oxygen p/kilogram of body weight p/minute (3.5 mLkgmin)
What is another term for oxygen at rest?
1 metabolic equivalant (or 1 MET) it is calculated as:VO2=Q x a -vO2 diffrence.In this equation VO2 is oxygen consumption,Q is cardiac output (HR x SV),and a - vO2 diffrence is the diffrence in the O2 content between blood in the arteries and blood the blood in the veins.
What is the VO2 max definition?
VO2 max is the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
What are the VO2 max value ranges?
Anywhere from 40 to 80 mLkgmin,or approximately 11 to 23 METs.
Name the submaximal VO2 procedures mentioned in the textbook.
The rockport walk test ,the step test , and field protocals.
Are these submaximal VO2 procedures accurate?
They deliver a good generalization of a clients overall cardiorespiratory fitness level,but they are not accurate.Although submaximal VO2 procedures are based on several assumptions that are rarely ever met and can contribute to estimate errors.However given repeatedly during a period of weeks or months they may show a cardiorespiratory trend.
In the text book how many steps are there to the respiratory process?
What is the first step?
Air is inhaled through the nose and mouth.
What is the second step?
Then conducted through the trachea ,and then down the bronchi.
What is the third step?
Where it eventually reaches the lungs and alveolar sacs.
What is the fourth step?
Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle of the heart.
What is the fifth step?
Through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs.
What is the sixth step?
Pulmonary capillaries surround the alveolar sacs,and as oxygen fills the sacs it diffuses across the capillary membranes and into blood.
What is the seventh step?
The oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins where it is pumped into the left ventricle.
What is the eighth step?
And out to the tissues of the body.
What is the ninth step?
Concurrently ,as the cells of the body are using oxygen, they produce an oxygen waste by-product known as carbon dioxide.Carbon Dioxide is tranported from the tissues back to the heart and eventually to the lungs in the deoxygenated blood.
What is the tenth step?
In the alveolar sacs,it diffuses into the pulmonary capillaries and is released through exhalation.In a simplistic overview , oxygen and carbon dioxide trade places in the tissues of the body,blood , and lungs.As one is coming in,the other is going out.
What does CO2 stand for?
Carbon Dioxide.Concurrently ,as the cells of the body are using oxygen, they produce an oxygen waste by-product known as carbon dioxide.
Requires oxygen (any activity over 30 seconds).
Does not require oxygen (activity that only last a few seconds.
The biology of energy transformations and exchanges within the body,and between it and the environment.How chemical energy (food) is converted into mechanical energy (work).
Andenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A cellular structure that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis.
What is ATP composed of ?
Structurally composed of a nitrogen based compound,andenine,a five carbon sugar called ribose,and three phosphates.
There are three main bioenergetic pathways that produce ATP.These include the ATP-CP,glycolysis,and oxidative pathways.
Andenosine Triphosphate(ATP)-Creatine Phosphate(CP) used for high intensity ,short duration activity such as weight training or sprinting.Used for anaerobic energy ,and good for approximately 10 seconds of activity.
Uses the breakdown of carbohydrates (glucose),moderate to high intensity ,moderate duration activities such as a typical set of 8-12 repititions.Used for anaerobic energy,and good for approximately 30 to 50 seconds.
Relies primarely on carbohydrates and fats for the production of ATP.This system is the slowest to produce because it requires increased amounts of oxygen,to match the muscular requirements of the exercise.Lower intensity,longer duration activity such as walking on the treadmill for 20-30 minutes.Used for aerobic activity,greater than 2 minutes.
How can breathing dysfunction affect the kinetic chain?
The cardiorespiratory system is a major support system of the kinetic chain,and vice-versa it's the muscles ,bones and nervous system that supports the cardiorespiratory system and enables it to funtion optimally.So if there is dysfunction in the cardiorespiratory system ,this can directly impact the components of the kinetic chain ,and cause further dysfunction.Alterations in breathing patterns are a primne example.
How many scenarios does the text show that are caused by breathing dysfunction?
Explain the first scenario caused by breathing dysfunction.
Breathing patterns become shallow,using secondary respiratory muscles more predominantly than the diaphragm.This shallow upper chest breathing pattern becomes a habit,causing overuse of the secondary respiratory muscles such as scalenes,sternocleidomastoid,levator scapulae and upper trapezius.
Explain the second scenario caused by breathing dysfunction.
These muscles play a role in posture in the kinetic chain,they all connect directly to the cervical and cranial portion of the body.Their increased activity and excessive tension often result in headaches,light headedness,and dizziness.
Explain the third scenario caused by breathing dysfunction.
Excessive breathing (short,shallow breaths)can lead to altered cabon dioxide and oxygen blood content that stimulates various sensors.
Explain the fourth scenario caused by breathing dysfunction.
This can lead to feelings of anxiety that further initiate an excessive breathing response.
Explain the fifth scenario caused by breathing dysfunction.
Inadaquate oxygen and retention of metabolic waste within muscles can create fatigued stiff muscles.
Explain the sixth scenario caused by breathing dysfunction.
Inadaquate joint motion of the spine and rib cage,as a result of improper breathing, causes joints to become restricted and stiff.
Explain the seventh scenario caused by breathing dysfunction.
All of these situations can lead to decreased functional capacity that may result in headaches ,feelings of anxiety ,fatigue and poor sleep patterns,as well as poor circulation.